How to format your references using the Social and Natural Sciences Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social and Natural Sciences Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watling, L. (2013). Deep-sea trawling must be banned. Nature, 501(7465), 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hyde, P. S., & Knudsen, E. I. (2002). The optic tectum controls visually guided adaptive plasticity in the owl’s auditory space map. Nature, 415(6867), 73–76.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arora, P. K., Srivastava, A., & Singh, V. P. (2014). Degradation of 4-chloro-3-nitrophenol via a novel intermediate, 4-chlororesorcinol by Pseudomonas sp. JHN. Scientific Reports, 4, 4475.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chambers, J. Q., Fisher, J. I., Zeng, H., Chapman, E. L., Baker, D. B., & Hurtt, G. C. (2007). Hurricane Katrina’s carbon footprint on U.S. Gulf Coast forests. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5853), 1107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dooner, D. B. (2012). Kinematic Geometry of Gearing. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zhang, J., Luna-Reyes, L. F., Pardo, T. A., & Sayogo, D. S. (Eds.). (2016). Information, Models, and Sustainability: Policy Informatics in the Age of Big Data and Open Government (Vol. 20). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kotani, J.-I. (2015). Angioscopy Catheter Equipped with a Balloon for Blood Flow Attenuation. In K. Mizuno & M. Takano (Eds.), Coronary Angioscopy (pp. 49–56). Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social and Natural Sciences Journal.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, October 22). Sunscreen Is Killing Coral Reefs. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). Misuse of SBA’s 8(a) Program Increased Cost for Many ADP Equipment Acquisitions (AFMD-82-9). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huffman, K. D. (2009). Teacher and administrator perceptions of a balanced school calendar and its effects on students in poverty [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, R. W. (1999, February 15). The Police Department’s 9-Millimeter Revolution. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watling, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Hyde & Knudsen, 2002; Watling, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hyde & Knudsen, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Arora et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chambers et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial and Natural Sciences Journal
ISSN (print)1804-4158
ISSN (online)1804-9710

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