How to format your references using the Social and Natural Sciences Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social and Natural Sciences Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kristoufek, L. (2013). Fractal markets hypothesis and the global financial crisis: wavelet power evidence. Scientific Reports, 3, 2857.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mezbahul-Islam, M., & Medraj, M. (2013). Phase equilibrium in Mg-Cu-Y. Scientific Reports, 3, 3033.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mennill, D. J., Ratcliffe, L. M., & Boag, P. T. (2002). Female eavesdropping on male song contests in songbirds. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5569), 873.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Okamoto, R., O’Brien, J. L., Hofmann, H. F., Nagata, T., Sasaki, K., & Takeuchi, S. (2009). An entanglement filter. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5913), 483–485.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vanclef, J. (2013). The Wealth Code 2.0. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Koomen, E., & Borsboom-van Beurden, J. (Eds.). (2011). Land-Use Modelling in Planning Practice (Vol. 101). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Cho, H., Ishida, T., Inaba, R., Takasaki, T., & Mori, Y. (2007). Pictogram Retrieval Based on Collective Semantics. In J. A. Jacko (Ed.), Human-Computer Interaction. HCI Intelligent Multimodal Interaction Environments: 12th International Conference, HCI International 2007, Beijing, China, July 22-27, 2007, Proceedings, Part III (pp. 31–39). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social and Natural Sciences Journal.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, June 8). Newly Created Protein Can Turn Brain Connections On And Off To Alter Cognitive Function. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Airline Competition: Passenger Facility Charges Represent a New Funding Source for Airports (No. RCED-91-39). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tucker, T. N. (2014). Virtual K-12 leadership: A postmodern paradigm (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2017, January 12). The Return of Goldman Sachs. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kristoufek, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kristoufek, 2013; Mezbahul-Islam & Medraj, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mezbahul-Islam & Medraj, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Mennill, Ratcliffe, & Boag, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Okamoto et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial and Natural Sciences Journal
ISSN (print)1804-4158
ISSN (online)1804-9710

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