How to format your references using the Small Ruminant Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Small Ruminant Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rodriguez, I., 2014. Neurobiology: To care or not to care. Nature 509, 294–296.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brett, M.J., Hawkeye, M.M., 2008. Materials science. New materials at a glance. Science 319, 1192–1193.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rupar, P.A., Staroverov, V.N., Baines, K.M., 2008. A cryptand-encapsulated germanium(II) dication. Science 322, 1360–1363.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Boffelli, D., McAuliffe, J., Ovcharenko, D., Lewis, K.D., Ovcharenko, I., Pachter, L., Rubin, E.M., 2003. Phylogenetic shadowing of primate sequences to find functional regions of the human genome. Science 299, 1391–1394.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tebbani, S., Lopes, F., Filali, R., Dumur, D., Pareau, D., 2014. CO 2 Biofixation by Microalgae. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Pol, J. van de, Weber, M. (Eds.), 2010. Model Checking Software: 17th International SPIN Workshop, Enschede, The Netherlands, September 27-29, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Porcas, R.W., 2005. Observing Blazars with VLBI, in: Mantovani, F., Kus, A. (Eds.), The Role of VLBI in Astrophysics, Astrometry and Geodesy, NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 93–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Small Ruminant Research.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. New Telescopes Reveal Io’s Lake Of Lava [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. ADP Acquisitions: Lessons Learned From SEC’s Edgar Pilot Test (No. IMTEC-87-31). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephens, B.S., 2017. Understanding CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 Activation by CXC Chemokine Ligand 12 (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2011. Former Arsenal Houses Museum in Kiev, Ukraine. New York Times TR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rodriguez, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Brett and Hawkeye, 2008; Rodriguez, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brett and Hawkeye, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Boffelli et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmall Ruminant Research
AbbreviationSmall Rumin. Res.
ISSN (print)0921-4488
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Food Animals

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