How to format your references using the Small Ruminant Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Small Ruminant Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
King, A., 2014. Astronomy. Testing the limits of accretion. Science 343, 1318–1319.
A journal article with 2 authors
Logan, B.E., Elimelech, M., 2012. Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water. Nature 488, 313–319.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutz, W., Sanderson, W., Scherbov, S., 2008. The coming acceleration of global population ageing. Nature 451, 716–719.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gao, C., Bourke, E., Scobie, M., Famme, M.A., Koolmeister, T., Helleday, T., Eriksson, L.A., Lowndes, N.F., Brown, J.A.L., 2014. Rational design and validation of a Tip60 histone acetyltransferase inhibitor. Sci. Rep. 4, 5372.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kazemi, G.A., Lehr, J.H., Perrochet, P., 2006. Groundwater Age. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Howard, A., Iagnemma, K., Kelly, A. (Eds.), 2010. Field and Service Robotics: Results of the 7th International Conference, Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Shavitt, Y., Zilberman, N., 2013. Internet PoP Level Maps, in: Biersack, E., Callegari, C., Matijasevic, M. (Eds.), Data Traffic Monitoring and Analysis: From Measurement, Classification, and Anomaly Detection to Quality of Experience, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 82–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Small Ruminant Research.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Enough Is Enough - It’s Time For An Evidence-Based Approach To Drug Policy [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. Increased Use of Expanded Function Dental Auxiliaries Would Benefit Consumers, Dentists, and Taxpayers (No. HRD-80-51). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tercero, N., 2010. Characterization and application of morpholino monolayers in nucleic acid diagnostics (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2016. Mets Find Trip to Series Has Cost in Pitching Staff. New York Times B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (King, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (King, 2014; Logan and Elimelech, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Logan and Elimelech, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Gao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmall Ruminant Research
AbbreviationSmall Rumin. Res.
ISSN (print)0921-4488
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Food Animals

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