How to format your references using the Small Ruminant Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Small Ruminant Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baughman, R.H., 2000. MATERIALS SCIENCE: Putting a New Spin on Carbon Nanotubes. Science 290, 1310–1311.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taleff, E.M., Pedrazas, N.A., 2013. Materials science. A new route for growing large grains in metals. Science 341, 1461–1462.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kessler, D., Gase, K., Baldwin, I.T., 2008. Field experiments with transformed plants reveal the sense of floral scents. Science 321, 1200–1202.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Saxena, S., Chaudhary, R.P., Singh, A., Awasthi, S., Shukla, S., 2014. Plasmonic micro lens for extraordinary transmission of broadband light. Sci. Rep. 4, 5586.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goddard Blythe, S., 2012. Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Wyrzykowski, R., Dongarra, J., Karczewski, K., Wasniewski, J. (Eds.), 2010. Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics: 8th International Conference, PPAM 2009, Wroclaw, Poland, September 13-16, 2009. Revised Selected Papers, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Terboven, C., an Mey, D., Sarholz, S., 2008. OpenMP on Multicore Architectures, in: Chapman, B., Zheng, W., Gao, G.R., Sato, M., Ayguadé, E., Wang, D. (Eds.), A Practical Programming Model for the Multi-Core Era: 3rd International Workshop on OpenMP, IWOMP 2007, Beijing, China, June 3-7, 2007 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 54–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Small Ruminant Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Tusks Tell The Tale Of Mammoth Extinction [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Airline Competition: DOT’s Implementation of Airline Regulatory Authority (No. RCED-89-93). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Payne, N.A., 2010. Adults who have learning disabilities: Transition from GED to postsecondary activities (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. Two Familiar Faces Rejoin Mets’ Bullpen. New York Times D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baughman, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Baughman, 2000; Taleff and Pedrazas, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Taleff and Pedrazas, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Saxena et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmall Ruminant Research
AbbreviationSmall Rumin. Res.
ISSN (print)0921-4488
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Food Animals

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