How to format your references using the Small Ruminant Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Small Ruminant Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robock, A., 2002. Pinatubo eruption. The climatic aftermath. Science 295, 1242–1244.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arimoto, T., Sato, Y., 2012. Science and society. Rebuilding public trust in science for policy-making. Science 337, 1176–1177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Verburg, P., Hecky, R.E., Kling, H., 2003. Ecological consequences of a century of warming in Lake Tanganyika. Science 301, 505–507.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
List, M., Schmidt, S., Trojnar, J., Thomas, J., Thomassen, M., Kruse, T.A., Tan, Q., Baumbach, J., Mollenhauer, J., 2014. Efficient sample tracking with OpenLabFramework. Sci. Rep. 4, 4278.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Norwitz, E.R., Belfort, M.A., Saade, G.R., Miller, H., 2010. Obstetric Clinical Algorithms: Management and Evidence. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Volpi, N. (Ed.), 2011. Capillary Electrophoresis of Carbohydrates: From Monosaccharides to Complex Polysaccharides. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Bäck, T., Foussette, C., Krause, P., 2013. Summary, in: Foussette, C., Krause, P. (Eds.), Contemporary Evolution Strategies, Natural Computing Series. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 85–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Small Ruminant Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Robocabs: How Long Before you Ditch Your Car for a Driverless Electric Taxi? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. No Child Left Behind Act: Additional Assistance and Research on Effective Strategies Would Help Small Rural Districts (No. GAO-04-909). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mande, M., 2017. Sisyphus’s Fault: How the Shifting Terrain of a Changing Institution Makes Curriculum Reform an “Impossible Task” (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lehman, S., 2017. Open Records Close the Case. New York Times A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Robock, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Arimoto and Sato, 2012; Robock, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arimoto and Sato, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (List et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmall Ruminant Research
AbbreviationSmall Rumin. Res.
ISSN (print)0921-4488
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Food Animals

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