How to format your references using the Small Ruminant Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Small Ruminant Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Batygin, K., 2012. A primordial origin for misalignments between stellar spin axes and planetary orbits. Nature 491, 418–420.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tomita, M., Kami, K., 2012. Cancer. Systems biology, metabolomics, and cancer metabolism. Science 336, 990–991.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tiberti, M.M., Basili, R., Vannoli, P., 2014. Ups and downs in western Crete (Hellenic subduction zone). Sci. Rep. 4, 5677.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Goyenvalle, A., Vulin, A., Fougerousse, F., Leturcq, F., Kaplan, J.-C., Garcia, L., Danos, O., 2004. Rescue of dystrophic muscle through U7 snRNA-mediated exon skipping. Science 306, 1796–1799.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS), 2011. Supplemental Proceedings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Rovira Más, F., 2011. Mechatronics and Intelligent Systems for Off-road Vehicles. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Garrison, A.P., Helmrath, M.A., 2011. Parenteral Nutrition, in: Mattei, P. (Ed.), Fundamentals of Pediatric Surgery. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 33–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Small Ruminant Research.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. Fly Above Mount Etna With This Stunning Drone Footage [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Rail Safety: The Federal Railroad Administration Is Taking Steps to Better Target Its Oversight, but Assessment of Results Is Needed to Determine Impact (No. GAO-07-149). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Colna, K.E., 2017. Latitudinal Position and Trends of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and its Relationship with Upwelling in the Southern Caribbean Sea and Global Climate Indices (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2011. A Focus on Cheese. New York Times NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Batygin, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Batygin, 2012; Tomita and Kami, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tomita and Kami, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Goyenvalle et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmall Ruminant Research
AbbreviationSmall Rumin. Res.
ISSN (print)0921-4488
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Food Animals

Other styles