How to format your references using the Sleep Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sassone-Corsi P. Physiology. When metabolism and epigenetics converge. Science 2013;339:148–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Birch JM, Dickinson MH. Spanwise flow and the attachment of the leading-edge vortex on insect wings. Nature 2001;412:729–33.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elsässer SJ, Allis CD, Lewis PW. Cancer. New epigenetic drivers of cancers. Science 2011;331:1145–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gaskell G, Einsiedel E, Hallman W, Priest SH, Jackson J, Olsthoorn J. Communication. Social values and the governance of science. Science 2005;310:1908–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nicholls DL, Piergrossi JC, Gibertoni C de S, Daniel MA. Psychoanalytic Thinking in Occupational Therapy. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Wang ZM, editor. Quantum Dot Devices. vol. 13. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Takazawa K, Inoue J, Mitsuishi K. Miniaturized Photonic Circuit Components Constructed from Organic Dye Nanofiber Waveguides. In: Zhao YS, editor. Organic Nanophotonics: Fundamentals and Applications, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015, p. 119–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep Science.

Blog post
Luntz S. Pesticides Are Killing Far More Than Bees, Study Claims. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Homeland Security: Oversight of Neglected Human Resources Information Technology Investment Is Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tiedemann-Fuller PM. A descriptive Rorschach study of children who have experienced chronic complex abuse. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Weber B. Henry Worsley, a British Adventurer Trying to Cross Antarctica, Dies at 55. New York Times 2016:A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep Science
AbbreviationSleep Sci.
ISSN (print)1984-0063
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
Behavioral Neuroscience

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