How to format your references using the Seminars in Spine Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Spine Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Where are all the students? Nature. 2002;420(6913):3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burns JA, Cuzzi JN. Planetary science. Our local astrophysical laboratory. Science. 2006;312(5781):1753-1755.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moldoveanu T, Gehring K, Green DR. Concerted multi-pronged attack by calpastatin to occlude the catalytic cleft of heterodimeric calpains. Nature. 2008;456(7220):404-408.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Salahudeen AA, Thompson JW, Ruiz JC, et al. An E3 ligase possessing an iron-responsive hemerythrin domain is a regulator of iron homeostasis. Science. 2009;326(5953):722-726.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Elliott CH, Smith LL. Overcoming Anxiety for Dummies®. Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Bello DJ. Strength and Stiffness of Engineering Systems. (Leckie FA, ed.). Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Coventry BJ, Morgan RG. Hand Surgery. In: Coventry BJ, ed. Peripheral, Head and Neck Surgery. Springer; 2014:29-47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Spine Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. India: The Pharmacy Of The World Where ‘Crazy Drug combinations’ Go Unregulated. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Agreement Needed on DOD Guidelines for Exempting Certain ADP Equipment and Service Procurements From the Brooks Act. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryant TL. The Influence of High School Preparation on Black Male Students’ Ability to Succeed at the Post-Secondary Level. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schlossberg T. After Fatal Crash, Pausing Before Picking a Train Seat. New York Times. February 5, 2015:A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Spine Surgery
AbbreviationSemin. Spine Surg.
ISSN (print)1040-7383
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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