How to format your references using the Seminars in Spine Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Spine Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang Q. Rural students are being left behind in China. Nature. 2014;510(7506):445.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kress TL, Guthrie C. Molecular biology. Accurate RNA siting and splicing gets help from a DEK-hand. Science. 2006;312(5782):1886-1887.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu D, Amagai S, Bricken J. Science education. Engaging teachers, scientists, and multimedia to promote learning. Science. 2012;336(6088):1509.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nagai S, Dubrana K, Tsai-Pflugfelder M, et al. Functional targeting of DNA damage to a nuclear pore-associated SUMO-dependent ubiquitin ligase. Science. 2008;322(5901):597-602.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Teodorescu P, Stănescu N-D, Pandrea N. Numerical Analysis with Applications in Mechanics and Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Muñoz-Rojas PA, ed. Optimization of Structures and Components. Vol 43. Springer International Publishing; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Cushman RA, McDaneld TG, Kuehn LA, Snelling WM, Nonneman D. Incorporation of Genetic Technologies Associated with Applied Reproductive Technologies to Enhance World Food Production. In: Lamb GC, DiLorenzo N, eds. Current and Future Reproductive Technologies and World Food Production. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer; 2014:77-96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Spine Surgery.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Claim Of Link Between Intelligence And Cannabis Use In Adolescence Provides Fresh Headache For Researcher. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Loan Defaults: Department of Education Limitations in Sanctioning Problem Schools. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buckowski M. A Wave of Navy Blue Churning. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. What You’ll Be Reading in 2017. New York Times. December 29, 2016:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Spine Surgery
AbbreviationSemin. Spine Surg.
ISSN (print)1040-7383
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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