How to format your references using the Seminars in Spine Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Spine Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Naismith JH. Don’t let politics put Diamond at risk. Nature. 2000;403(6771):698.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Hannon GJ, Rossi JJ. Unlocking the potential of the human genome with RNA interference. Nature. 2004;431(7006):371-378.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Dietz H, Douglas SM, Shih WM. Folding DNA into twisted and curved nanoscale shapes. Science. 2009;325(5941):725-730.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Wang H, Kong L, Zhang J, et al. The pseudoginsenoside F11 ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity without compromising its anti-tumor activity in vivo. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4986.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Benslama M, Kiamouche W, Batatia H. Connections Management Strategies in Satellite Cellular Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
1.
Gettelman A. Demystifying Climate Models: A Users Guide to Earth System Models. Vol 2. (Rood RB, ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Erverdi N, Motro M. Distraction with Custom-Made Appliances on a Straight Vector. In: Motro M, ed. Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis: ArchWise Appliance and Technique. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:47-61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Spine Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Hamilton K. Genes Can Have Up To 80% Influence On Students’ Academic Performance. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Electronic Government: Planned e-Authentication Gateway Faces Formidable Development Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Murray TM. A grounded theory of U.S. Army installation realignment and closure leadership characteristics. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Poniewozik J. A Brutal Season of Prison Siege. New York Times. June 8, 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Spine Surgery
AbbreviationSemin. Spine Surg.
ISSN (print)1040-7383
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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