How to format your references using the Sleep Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Snyder SH. Neuroscience. Adam finds an exciting mate. Science 2006;313:1744–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Gold JI, Shadlen MN. Representation of a perceptual decision in developing oculomotor commands. Nature 2000;404:390–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Roopnarine PD, Angielczyk KD, Hertog R. Comment on “Statistical independence of escalatory ecological trends in Phanerozoic marine invertebrates.” Science 2006;314:925; author reply 925.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Zhao F, Cheng H, Hu Y, Song L, Zhang Z, Jiang L, et al. Functionalized graphitic carbon nitride for metal-free, flexible and rewritable nonvolatile memory device via direct laser-writing. Sci Rep 2014;4:5882.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Stratton JA. Electromagnetic Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
[1]
Coecke B, editor. New Structures for Physics. vol. 813. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Graziottin A, Murina F. Vulvodinia: che cosa la provoca. Fisiopatologia del dolore vulvare. In: Murina F, editor. Vulvodinia: Strategie di diagnosi e cura, Milano: Springer; 2011, p. 37–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep Medicine.

Blog post
[1]
Hale T. This 12 Black Dot Illusion Is Blowing A Lot Of Minds. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/brain/this-12-black-dot-illusion-is-blowing-a-lot-of-minds/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Vulnerabilities and Potential Improvements for the Air Cargo System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Astorga J. Mentoring program for emancipated foster youth: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Feeney K. See Food Grow. Eat It There. New York Times 2008:NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep Medicine
AbbreviationSleep Med.
ISSN (print)1389-9457
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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