How to format your references using the Sleep Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Schiermeier Q. Climate change: the long road from Kyoto. Nature 2003;426:756.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Kalnay E, Cai M. Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate. Nature 2003;423:528–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Diddams SA, Hollberg L, Mbele V. Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb. Nature 2007;445:627–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Palchykov V, Mitrović M, Jo H-H, Saramäki J, Pan RK. Inferring human mobility using communication patterns. Sci Rep 2014;4:6174.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Rasch D, Schott D. Mathematische Statistik. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
[1]
Veevers N. Kurt Hahn: Inspirational, Visionary, Outdoor and Experiential Educator. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
van Aartsengel A, Kurtoglu S. Culture and Values Dimension. In: Kurtoglu S, editor. A Guide to Continuous Improvement Transformation: Concepts, Processes, Implementation, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 39–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep Medicine.

Blog post
[1]
Carpineti A. Clouds Hide The Water On Hot Exoplanets. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/space/clouds-hide-the-water-on-hot-exoplanets/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Fly America Act Interpretation]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Lopez V. The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: A policy analysis. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Billard M. Fitting More Into That Bag. New York Times 2010:E4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep Medicine
AbbreviationSleep Med.
ISSN (print)1389-9457
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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