How to format your references using the SLEEP citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SLEEP. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Khochbin S. Persian role in flowering of Islamic science. Nature. 2000;405(6782):14.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Nagib DA, MacMillan DWC. Trifluoromethylation of arenes and heteroarenes by means of photoredox catalysis. Nature. 2011;480(7376):224-228.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Le Mée L, Girardeau J, Monnier C. Mantle segmentation along the Oman ophiolite fossil mid-ocean ridge. Nature. 2004;432(7014):167-172.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Guarani V, Deflorian G, Franco CA, et al. Acetylation-dependent regulation of endothelial Notch signalling by the SIRT1 deacetylase. Nature. 2011;473(7346):234-238.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Design Solutions for Process Equipment Failures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1998.
An edited book
1.
Chapman BM, Massaioli F, Müller MS, Rorro M, eds. OpenMP in a Heterogeneous World: 8th International Workshop on OpenMP, IWOMP 2012, Rome, Italy, June 11-13, 2012. Proceedings. Vol 7312. Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Stahl G. Interactional Methods and Social Practices in VMT. In: Stahl G, ed. Studying Virtual Math Teams. Springer US; 2009:41-55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SLEEP.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Jumping Spiders See Reds Thanks to Sunglasses-Like Filter. IFLScience. Published May 19, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/jumping-spiders-see-reds-thanks-sunglasses-filter/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Airlines: Weak Financial Structure Threatens Competition. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Lee JY. Socio-Spatial Exclusion Based on Human Activities and Social Networks in Space-Time: A Case Study of Koreans in Columbus, Ohio. Published online 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Williams J. The Inexhaustible Four. New York Times. May 4, 2017:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSLEEP
AbbreviationSleep
ISSN (print)0161-8105
ISSN (online)1550-9109
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)

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