How to format your references using the SLEEP citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SLEEP. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Radom L. Obituary: John A. Pople (1925-2004). Nature. 2004;428(6985):816.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirkwood TB, Austad SN. Why do we age? Nature. 2000;408(6809):233-238.
A journal article with 3 authors
He W, Cowin P, Stokes DL. Untangling desmosomal knots with electron tomography. Science. 2003;302(5642):109-113.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sánchez-Lavega A, del Río-Gaztelurrutia T, Hueso R, et al. Deep winds beneath Saturn’s upper clouds from a seasonal long-lived planetary-scale storm. Nature. 2011;475(7354):71-74.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Riegel M, Kroeselberg D, Chindapol A, Premec D. Deploying Mobile WiMAX. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Corcoran T, ed. Psychology in Education: Critical Theory~Practice. SensePublishers; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Wu Z, Hashimoto M, Guo B, Takahashi K. A Path Prediction Method for Human-Accompanying Mobile Robot Based on Neural Network. In: Zhang Y, Zhou ZH, Zhang C, Li Y, eds. Intelligent Science and Intelligent Data Engineering: Second Sino-Foreign-Interchange Workshop, IScIDE 2011, Xi’an, China, October 23-25, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2012:35-42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SLEEP.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Dark Matter May Have Punched Huge Holes In A Stream Of Stars. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Award of an Army Advanced Development Contract in 1971 to the Boeing Company Calling for the Design Fabrication and Testing of Certain Critical Advanced Technology Components. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weissflug KG. Effects of Positive Behavior Support Programs on Student Behaviors. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Home Woes Continue. New York Times. December 12, 1999:810.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSLEEP
ISSN (print)0161-8105
ISSN (online)1550-9109
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)

Other styles