How to format your references using the SLEEP citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SLEEP. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Padian K. Darwin’s enduring legacy. Nature. 2008;451(7179):632-634.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davidson K, Humphreys RM. The Great Eruption of η Carinae. Nature. 2012;486(7403):E1; discussion E1-2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Comas D, Petit F, Preat T. Drosophila long-term memory formation involves regulation of cathepsin activity. Nature. 2004;430(6998):460-463.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hill PWS, Leitch HG, Requena CE, et al. Epigenetic reprogramming enables the transition from primordial germ cell to gonocyte. Nature. 2018;555(7696):392-396.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cabaniss DL, Cherry S, Douglas CJ, Graver RL, Schwartz AR. Psychodynamic Formulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Yamakawa H. Helical Wormlike Chains in Polymer Solutions. 2nd ed. 2016. (Yoshizaki T, ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Barton J, Parolin B, Weiley V. A Spatial Decision Support System for the Management of Public Housing. In: Leeuwen JPV, Timmermans HJP, eds. Recent Advances in Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005:69-84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SLEEP.

Blog post
Hale T. 35 Tons Of Dead Fish Just Washed Up In A Chinese Lake. IFLScience. Published May 9, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. College Debit Cards: Actions Needed to Address ATM Access, Student Choice, and Transparency. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taylor WA. Every citizen a soldier: The U.S. Army’s campaign for universal military training following World War II. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Federer, Continuing His Rebound, Soars Into Semifinals as Favorite. New York Times. July 13, 2017:B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSLEEP
ISSN (print)0161-8105
ISSN (online)1550-9109
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)

Other styles