How to format your references using the SLEEP citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SLEEP. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Killian TC. Ultracold neutral plasmas. Science. 2007;316(5825):705-708.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mori M, Umemura M. The evolution of galaxies from primeval irregulars to present-day ellipticals. Nature. 2006;440(7084):644-647.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nieder A, Diester I, Tudusciuc O. Temporal and spatial enumeration processes in the primate parietal cortex. Science. 2006;313(5792):1431-1435.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kamaras K, Itkis ME, Hu H, Zhao B, Haddon RC. Covalent bond formation to a carbon nanotube metal. Science. 2003;301(5639):1501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pickles J, Smith A, Begg R, Buček M, Roukova P, Pástor R. Articulations of Capital. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Wolf BA, Enders S, eds. Polymer Thermodynamics: Liquid Polymer-Containing Mixtures. Vol 238. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Lam H-K, Leung FH-F. Chapter 4 BMI Stability Conditions for FMB Control Systems. In: Leung FH-F, ed. Stability Analysis of Fuzzy-Model-Based Control Systems: Linear-Matrix-Inequality Approach. Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Springer; 2010:59-84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SLEEP.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Nearby Supernovae Showered Earth With Radiation. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Issue Area Plan--Fiscal Years 1995-97. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tromp M. Bayesian monitoring of clinical trials: Examples using conjugate priors. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vanderwoude M. Odd Question From a Man of God. New York Times. June 28, 2016:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSLEEP
ISSN (print)0161-8105
ISSN (online)1550-9109
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)

Other styles