How to format your references using the SLEEP citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SLEEP. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yin QZ. Planetary science. Predicting the Sun’s oxygen isotope composition. Science. 2004;305(5691):1729-1730.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feld GB, Born J. Neuroscience. Exploiting sleep to modify bad attitudes. Science. 2015;348(6238):971-972.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chuang ST, Kuo YH, Su MJ. Antifibrotic effects of KS370G, a caffeamide derivative, in renal ischemia-reperfusion injured mice and renal tubular epithelial cells. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5814.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tsuda M, Sasaoka Y, Kiso M, et al. Conserved role of nanos proteins in germ cell development. Science. 2003;301(5637):1239-1241.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henderson TJ. Beyond Borders. Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Sala M, Sakata S, Mora T, Traverso C, Perret L, eds. Gröbner Bases, Coding, and Cryptography. Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Cordes C, Ackermann H, Rosenhahn B. A Low-Rank Constraint for Parallel Stereo Cameras. In: Weickert J, Hein M, Schiele B, eds. Pattern Recognition: 35th German Conference, GCPR 2013, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 3-6, 2013. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2013:31-40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SLEEP.

Blog post
Andrew E. Blocking Inflammation For Too Long Could Be Bad For Your Heart. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2010 Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez V. The Relationship between Visit to a Doctor and the Health Behaviors of Children. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. QUICK BITE/Edison; Sandwich for Five? New York Times. April 23, 2006:14NJ24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSLEEP
ISSN (print)0161-8105
ISSN (online)1550-9109
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)

Other styles