How to format your references using the Skeletal Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Skeletal Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Enserink M. DUTCH SCIENCE: On a Slippery Slope to Mediocrity? Science. 2000;289:2033.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bays PM, Husain M. Response to Comment on “Dynamic Shifts of Limited Working Memory Resources in Human Vision.” Science. 2009;323:877.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Fricke HC, Hencecroth J, Hoerner ME. Lowland-upland migration of sauropod dinosaurs during the Late Jurassic epoch. Nature. 2011;480:513–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bebenek K, Tissier A, Frank EG, McDonald JP, Prasad R, Wilson SH, et al. 5’-Deoxyribose phosphate lyase activity of human DNA polymerase iota in vitro. Science. 2001;291:2156–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Wiebe VJ. Drug Therapy for Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Wickramasinghe N, Bali R, Suomi R, Kirn S, editors. Critical Issues for the Development of Sustainable E-health Solutions. 1st ed. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Robyns B, Francois B, Degobert P, Hautier JP. Theoretical Study of the Parametric Sensitivity. In: Francois B, Degobert P, Hautier JP, editors. Vector Control of Induction Machines: Desensitisation and Optimisation Through Fuzzy Logic. London: Springer; 2012. p. 123–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Skeletal Radiology.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Marine Ecosystems Took 3 Million Years To Recover After The Great Dying. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Individuals With Disabilities Education Act: School Districts’ Response to Regulatory Deadline. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Apr. Report No.: T-HEHS-98-156.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gardina VJ. Analysis of LiDAR data for fluvial geomorphic change detection at a small Maryland stream [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. The Nuptials Are Set. The Groom? TBD. New York Times. 2017 May 11;C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSkeletal Radiology
AbbreviationSkeletal Radiol.
ISSN (print)0364-2348
ISSN (online)1432-2161
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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