How to format your references using the Skeletal Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Skeletal Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Luo Z-X. Journal club. A palaeontologist ponders how genes and fossils can illuminate mammalian evolution. Nature. 2010;465:669.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kaya M, Higuchi H. Nonlinear elasticity and an 8-nm working stroke of single myosin molecules in myofilaments. Science. 2010;329:686–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Turk MJ, Abel T, O’Shea B. The formation of Population III binaries from cosmological initial conditions. Science. 2009;325:601–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Veldhoen M, Hirota K, Westendorf AM, Buer J, Dumoutier L, Renauld J-C, et al. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor links TH17-cell-mediated autoimmunity to environmental toxins. Nature. 2008;453:106–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Balakrishnan N, Koutras MV. Runs and Scans with Applications: Balakrishnan/Runs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2001.
An edited book
1. Mouza C, Lavigne N, editors. Emerging Technologies for the Classroom: A Learning Sciences Perspective. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lumsden J, Flinn S, Anderson M, Morgan W. What Difference Do Guidelines Make? An Observational Study of Online-questionnaire Design Guidelines Put to Practical Use. In: McEwan T, Gulliksen J, Benyon D, editors. People and Computers XIX — The Bigger Picture: Proceedings of HCI 2005. London: Springer; 2006. p. 69–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Skeletal Radiology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Dinosaurs May Have Been Warm-Blooded After All. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Trust Fund: Revenue Sources, Uses, and Spending Controls. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Oct. Report No.: RCED-92-48FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Tomlinson KL. Working with the imaginal: Art-making and dialogue with figures of soul [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Legal Victory for Families of Disabled Students. New York Times. 2007 May 22;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSkeletal Radiology
AbbreviationSkeletal Radiol.
ISSN (print)0364-2348
ISSN (online)1432-2161
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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