How to format your references using the Silicon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Silicon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chesebro B (2004) Biomedicine. A fresh look at BSE. Science 305:1918–1921
A journal article with 2 authors
Mani RG, Kriisa A (2013) Magneto-transport characteristics of a 2D electron system driven to negative magneto-conductivity by microwave photoexcitation. Sci Rep 3:3478
A journal article with 3 authors
Li L, Dudin YO, Kuzmich A (2013) Entanglement between light and an optical atomic excitation. Nature 498:466–469
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Weixlbaumer A, Jin H, Neubauer C, et al (2008) Insights into translational termination from the structure of RF2 bound to the ribosome. Science 322:953–956

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khatib T, Elmenreich W (2016) Modeling of Photovoltaic Systems Using MATLAB ®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Narayan R, Boland T, Lee Y-S (2010) Printed Biomaterials: Novel Processing and Modeling Techniques for Medicine and Surgery. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Strauß P-M, Minker W (2010) Evaluation. In: Minker W (ed) Proactive Spoken Dialogue Interaction in Multi-Party Environments. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 115–139

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Silicon.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) The Magnetic Field Across The Magellanic Clouds Has Been Mapped for the First Time. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Proposed Facility Requirements for the National Center for Toxicological Research and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oduntan A (2017) The Rheological Study of the Effects of Surfactant and Hydrophilic Bentonite Nano clay on Oil in Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2002) World Briefing | Europe: Moldova: Political Tension. New York Times A10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSilicon
ISSN (print)1876-990X
ISSN (online)1876-9918
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

Other styles