How to format your references using the Silicon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Silicon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sieradzki K (2011) Materials science. Potential solutions for creating responsive materials. Science 332:1158–1159
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith MW, Baran PS (2015) ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. As simple as [2+2]. Science 349:925–926
A journal article with 3 authors
Wiedemann N, Meisinger C, Pfanner N (2009) Cell biology. Connecting organelles. Science 325:403–404
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Waite JH Jr, Young DT, Cravens TE, et al (2007) The process of tholin formation in Titan’s upper atmosphere. Science 316:870–875

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pelz G (2005) Mechatronic Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Webster TJ (2011) Nanotechnology Enabled In situ Sensors for Monitoring Health. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Spoletini I, Vitale C, Rosano GMC (2015) Target Organ Damage and RAAS Blockade. In: Perrone Filardi P (ed) ACEi and ARBS in Hypertension and Heart Failure. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 119–148

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Silicon.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) If A Solar Plant Uses Natural Gas, Is It Still Green? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Technology Assessment: Water in the Energy Sector: Reducing Freshwater Use in Hydraulic Fracturing and Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Solorzano E (2014) A mindfulness-based psycho-educational group for caregivers of older adults: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR N, Kishkovsky S (2015) Russian History Gets a Makeover That Starts With Ivan the Terrible. New York Times A4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSilicon
ISSN (print)1876-990X
ISSN (online)1876-9918
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

Other styles