How to format your references using the Silence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Silence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Betts RA. Offset of the potential carbon sink from boreal forestation by decreases in surface albedo. Nature. 2000;408:187–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cyranoski D, Chou I-H. Winds of change blow away the cobwebs on campus. Nature. 2004;429:210–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Schott D, Yanai I, Hunter CP. Natural RNA interference directs a heritable response to the environment. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7387.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wang X, Li X, Zhang L, Yoon Y, Weber PK, Wang H, et al. N-doping of graphene through electrothermal reactions with ammonia. Science. 2009;324:768–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Schrör K. Acetylsalicylic Acid. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2016.
An edited book
1. Barros A, Grigori D, Narendra NC, Dam HK, editors. Service-Oriented Computing: 13th International Conference, ICSOC 2015, Goa, India, November 16-19, 2015, Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chang N-H, Kinoshita M, Nishihara Y. Liquid Crystals. In: Nishihara Y, editor. Applied Cross-Coupling Reactions. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 111–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Silence.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Vitamin D May Protect Against Severe Asthma Attacks And Hospitalisation. IFLScience. 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Passenger Rail Security: Enhanced Federal Leadership Needed to Prioritize and Guide Security Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Haxton SA. Student Risk Perception in the Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. STEVEN LEE MYERS; Sophia Kishkovsky contributed reporting for this article. Russian Court Delays Ruling In Fraud Trial Of Oil Tycoon. New York Times. 2005;:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSilence
ISSN (print)1758-907X
Scope

Other styles