How to format your references using the Signal Processing: Image Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Signal Processing: Image Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Jasanoff, Genome-sequencing anniversary. A living constitution, Science. 331 (2011) 872.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.D. Ellington, J.J. Bull, Evolution. Changing the cofactor diet of an enzyme, Science. 310 (2005) 454–455.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.W. Anderson, W.F. Brinkman, D.A. Huse, Thermodynamics of an incommensurate quantum crystal, Science. 310 (2005) 1164–1166.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Wang, W. Zhu, M.D. Best, J.P. Camden, K.B. Crozier, Wafer-scale metasurface for total power absorption, local field enhancement and single molecule Raman spectroscopy, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2867.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C.J. Ko, R.J. Barr, Dermatopathology, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
P. Hlavinek, T. Kukharchyk, J. Marsalek, I. Mahrikova, eds., Integrated Urban Water Resources Management, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
O. Trajman, A. Crolotte, D. Steinhoff, R.O. Nambiar, M. Poess, Database Are Not Toasters: A Framework for Comparing Data Warehouse Appliances, in: R. Nambiar, M. Poess (Eds.), Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking: First TPC Technology Conference, TPCTC 2009, Lyon, France, August 24-28, 2009, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 31–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Signal Processing: Image Communication.

Blog post
J. Fang, Ancient Artwork Depicts Collapse of Egypt’s Animal Communities, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Intercollegiate Athletics: Comparison of Selected Characteristics for Men’s and Women’s Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.G. Weissflug, Effects of Positive Behavior Support Programs on Student Behaviors, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, Fans Voice Frustration, But Mets Leave It Behind, New York Times. (2010) B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSignal Processing: Image Communication
AbbreviationSignal Process. Image Commun.
ISSN (print)0923-5965
ScopeComputer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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