How to format your references using the Signal Processing: Image Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Signal Processing: Image Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. von Hobe, Atmospheric science. Revisiting ozone depletion, Science. 318 (2007) 1878–1879.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Barve, A. Wagner, A latent capacity for evolutionary innovation through exaptation in metabolic systems, Nature. 500 (2013) 203–206.
A journal article with 3 authors
B.C. Dian, A. Longarte, T.S. Zwier, Conformational dynamics in a dipeptide after single-mode vibrational excitation, Science. 296 (2002) 2369–2373.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P.M. Cury, I.L. Boyd, S. Bonhommeau, T. Anker-Nilssen, R.J.M. Crawford, R.W. Furness, J.A. Mills, E.J. Murphy, H. Osterblom, M. Paleczny, J.F. Piatt, J.-P. Roux, L. Shannon, W.J. Sydeman, Global seabird response to forage fish depletion--one-third for the birds, Science. 334 (2011) 1703–1706.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. MacClancy, Anthropology in the Public Arena, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
H. Leung, E. Popescu, Y. Cao, R.W.H. Lau, W. Nejdl, eds., Advances in Web-Based Learning - ICWL 2011: 10th International Conference, Hong Kong, China, December 8-10, 2011. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
H.A. Dye, L.H. Kauffman, V.O. Manturov, On Two Categorifications of the Arrow Polynomial for Virtual Knots, in: M. Banagl, D. Vogel (Eds.), The Mathematics of Knots: Theory and Application, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 95–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Signal Processing: Image Communication.

Blog post
T. Hale, Here Are Some Common Sex Myths That Everyone Really Needs To Stop Believing, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, HEW Audits of Federal Grants and Contracts Administered by Institutions of Higher Education, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Winkelhake, Verbal argumentativeness: A study of retail store managers, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, K. Belson, Seau Had Brain Disease Found in Other Ex-Players, New York Times. (2013) B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSignal Processing: Image Communication
AbbreviationSignal Process. Image Commun.
ISSN (print)0923-5965
ScopeComputer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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