How to format your references using the Ships and Offshore Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ships and Offshore Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peercy PS. 2000. The drive to miniaturization. Nature. 406(6799):1023–1026.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Connor PM, Claessens LPAM. 2005. Basic avian pulmonary design and flow-through ventilation in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. Nature. 436(7048):253–256.
A journal article with 3 authors
Surdutovich E, Yakubovich AV, Solov’yov AV. 2013. Biodamage via shock waves initiated by irradiation with ions. Sci Rep. 3:1289.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Richardson AD, Hufkens K, Milliman T, Aubrecht DM, Furze ME, Seyednasrollah B, Krassovski MB, Latimer JM, Nettles WR, Heiderman RR, et al. 2018. Ecosystem warming extends vegetation activity but heightens vulnerability to cold temperatures. Nature. 560(7718):368–371.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Danson E. 2016. Drawing the Line. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schulzrinne H, State R, Niccolini S, editors. 2008. Principles, Systems and Applications of IP Telecommunications. Services and Security for Next Generation Networks: Second International Conference, IPTComm 2008, Heidelberg, Germany, July 1-2, 2008. Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Caputo J-G, Stepanyants YA. 2007. Tsunami surge in a river: a hydraulic jump in an inhomogeneous channel. In: Kundu A, editor. Tsunami and Nonlinear Waves. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; p. 97–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ships and Offshore Structures.

Blog post
Hale T. 2017. Don’t Believe Your Eyes, These Strawberries Are Not Red. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Assessment of the Explanation That Immigration and Customs Enforcement Provided for Its Subsequent Transfer from the Spectrum Relocation Fund. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bernal E. 2013. Ethnographic research of emergent cultural themes from technology-based informal education in a museum [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Smith M. 2017. Minneapolis Police Chief Is Forced Out. New York Times.:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Peercy 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Peercy 2000; O’Connor and Claessens 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Connor and Claessens 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Richardson et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleShips and Offshore Structures
AbbreviationShips Offshore Structures
ISSN (print)1744-5302
ISSN (online)1754-212X
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Ocean Engineering

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