How to format your references using the Ships and Offshore Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ships and Offshore Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kleiner R. 2007. Applied physics. Filling the terahertz gap. Science. 318(5854):1254–1255.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peppe DJ, Royer DL. 2015. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE. Can climate feel the pressure? Science. 348(6240):1210–1211.
A journal article with 3 authors
Keenan SW, Engel AS, Elsey RM. 2013. The alligator gut microbiome and implications for archosaur symbioses. Sci Rep. 3:2877.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
DeRussy BM, Aylward MA, Fan Z, Ray PC, Tandon R. 2014. Inhibition of cytomegalovirus infection and photothermolysis of infected cells using bioconjugated gold nanoparticles. Sci Rep. 4:5550.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burkinshaw SM. 2016. Physico-chemical Aspects of Textile Coloration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Jarman H, Luna-Reyes LF, editors. 2016. Private Data and Public Value: Governance, Green Consumption, and Sustainable Supply Chains. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hogenboom F, Milea V, Frasincar F, Kaymak U. 2010. RDF-GL: A SPARQL-Based Graphical Query Language for RDF. In: Chbeir R, Badr Y, Abraham A, Hassanien A-E, editors. Emergent Web Intelligence: Advanced Information Retrieval. London: Springer; p. 87–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ships and Offshore Structures.

Blog post
Davis J. 2015. The Boys Who Only Develop A Penis When They Hit The Age Of 12. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Improved Planning and Acquisition Strategies Can Help Address Operational Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beck J. 2010. Community based human trafficking awareness program: A grant proposal project [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. 2014. Two Graphic Narratives, Inspired by the Fab Four. New York Times.:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kleiner 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Kleiner 2007; Peppe & Royer 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peppe & Royer 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (DeRussy et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleShips and Offshore Structures
AbbreviationShips Offshore Structures
ISSN (print)1744-5302
ISSN (online)1754-212X
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Ocean Engineering

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