How to format your references using the Ships and Offshore Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ships and Offshore Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levermann A. 2014. Climate economics: make supply chains climate-smart. Nature. 506(7486):27–29.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaasik K, Lee CC. 2004. Reciprocal regulation of haem biosynthesis and the circadian clock in mammals. Nature. 430(6998):467–471.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dharmawardhana CC, Misra A, Ching W-Y. 2014. Quantum mechanical metric for internal cohesion in cement crystals. Sci Rep. 4:7332.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Thompson RB, Ginzburg VV, Matsen MW, Balazs AC. 2001. Predicting the mesophases of copolymer-nanoparticle composites. Science. 292(5526):2469–2472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pijaudier-Cabot G, La Borderie C, Reess T, Chen W, Maurel O, Rey-Berbeder F, de Ferron A. 2016. Electrohydraulic Fracturing of Rocks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Barak M, Hacker M, editors. 2011. Fostering Human Development Through Engineering and Technology Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Lane T. 2014. When Actions Feel Alien—an Explanatory Model. In: Hung T-W, editor. Communicative Action: Selected Papers of the 2013 IEAS Conference on Language and Action. Singapore: Springer; p. 53–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ships and Offshore Structures.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2017. Astronomers To Peer Into A Black Hole For First Time With new Event Horizon Telescope. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Interstate Compacts: Transparency and Oversight of Bi-State Tolling Authorities Could Be Enhanced. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mills CC. 2017. Olfaction and Exhibition: Assessing the Impact of Scent in Museums on Exhibit Engagement, Learning and Empathy [Doctoral dissertation]. Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haberman M, Thrush G, Schmidt MS, Baker P. 2017. How Festering Anger at Comey Ended in Firing. New York Times.:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Levermann 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kaasik and Lee 2004; Levermann 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaasik and Lee 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Thompson et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleShips and Offshore Structures
AbbreviationShips Offshore Structures
ISSN (print)1744-5302
ISSN (online)1754-212X
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Ocean Engineering

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