How to format your references using the Ships and Offshore Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ships and Offshore Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hynek BM. 2004. Implications for hydrologic processes on Mars from extensive bedrock outcrops throughout Terra Meridiani. Nature. 431(7005):156–159.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guiver MD, Lee YM. 2013. Materials science. Polymer rigidity improves microporous membranes. Science. 339(6117):284–285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Behn MD, Hirth G, Kelemen PB. 2007. Trench-parallel anisotropy produced by foundering of arc lower crust. Science. 317(5834):108–111.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Chikkatur AP, Shin Y, Leanhardt AE, Kielpinski D, Tsikata E, Gustavson TL, Pritchard DE, Ketterle W. 2002. A continuous source of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms. Science. 296(5576):2193–2195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 1998. Guidelines for Safe Warehousing of Chemicals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Robshaw M, Katz J, editors. 2016. Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2016: 36th Annual International Cryptology Conference, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, August 14-18, 2016, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pillai BVS, Kagale S, Chellamma S. 2012. Enhancing Productivity and Performance of Oil Seed Crops under Environmental Stresses. In: Venkateswarlu B, Shanker AK, Shanker C, Maheswari M, editors. Crop Stress and its Management: Perspectives and Strategies. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; p. 139–161.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ships and Offshore Structures.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2016. Saving Nemo: How Climate Change Threatens Anemonefish And Their Homes. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Guaranteed Student Loans: Potential Default and Cost Reduction Options. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Janpengpen A. 2010. Monitoring and forecasting biosolids odors at prior lime and post lime addition in wastewater treatment plants [Doctoral dissertation]. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Florio J, Shapiro O. 2017. The Future of Racing Plugs Into Red Hook. New York Times.:MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hynek 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Hynek 2004; Guiver and Lee 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Guiver and Lee 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Chikkatur et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleShips and Offshore Structures
AbbreviationShips Offshore Structures
ISSN (print)1744-5302
ISSN (online)1754-212X
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Ocean Engineering

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