How to format your references using the Ships and Offshore Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ships and Offshore Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kahan D. 2010. Fixing the communications failure. Nature. 463:296–297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frank SA, Nowak MA. 2003. Cell biology: Developmental predisposition to cancer. Nature. 422:494.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mathis D, Vence L, Benoist C. 2001. beta-Cell death during progression to diabetes. Nature. 414:792–798.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Cantlon JF, Cordes S, Libertus ME, Brannon EM. 2009. Comment on “Log or linear? Distinct intuitions of the number scale in Western and Amazonian indigene cultures.” Science. 323:38; author reply 38.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kondrashov AS. 2017. Crumbling Genome. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Douçot B, Pasquier V, Duplantier B, Rivasseau V, editors. 2005. The Quantum Hall Effect: Poincaré Seminar 2004. Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Cohen S, Gulbinska MK, Puglia FJ. 2014. Lithium-ion Cell and Battery Safety. In: Gulbinska MK, editor. Lithium-ion Battery Materials and Engineering: Current Topics and Problems from the Manufacturing Perspective. London: Springer; p. 115–150.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ships and Offshore Structures.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. NSFL: Botfly Removal From 5-Year-Old’s Eye. IFLScience [Internet]. [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:’s-eye/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Federal Student Loans: Oversight of Defaulted Loan Rehabilitation Needs Strengthening. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salie A. 2008. Servant-minded leadership and work satisfaction in Islamic organizations: A correlational mixed study [Doctoral dissertation]. Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. 2008. Nassau and Suffolk Expecting More Funds. New York Times.:LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kahan 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Frank & Nowak 2003; Kahan 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Frank & Nowak 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Cantlon et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleShips and Offshore Structures
AbbreviationShips Offshore Structures
ISSN (print)1744-5302
ISSN (online)1754-212X
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Ocean Engineering

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