How to format your references using the Lung Cancer Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lung Cancer Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Niven JE. Behavior. How honeybees break a decision-making deadlock. Science. 335(6064), 43–44 (2012).
A journal article with 2 authors
Sawa A, Snyder SH. Schizophrenia: diverse approaches to a complex disease. Science. 296(5568), 692–695 (2002).
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoon S-J, Yi SK, Lee Y-W. Explaining the color distributions of globular cluster systems in elliptical galaxies. Science. 311(5764), 1129–1132 (2006).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Koralek JD, Weber CP, Orenstein J, et al. Emergence of the persistent spin helix in semiconductor quantum wells. Nature. 458(7238), 610–613 (2009).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marx FG, Lambert O, Uhen MD. Cetacean Paleobiology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Vazquez R. Control of Turbulent and Magnetohydrodynamic Channel Flows: Boundary Stabilization and State Estimation. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
de Armas J, Melián-Batista B, Moreno-Pérez JA. Restricted Dynamic Heterogeneous Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows. In: Advances in Computational Intelligence: 12th International Work-Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, IWANN 2013, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, June 12-14, 2013, Proceedings, Part II. Rojas I, Joya G, Cabestany J (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 36–45 (2013).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lung Cancer Management.

Blog post
Andrew D. Improved Lab-Grown Burger Will Be Sold On The Mainstream Market. IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Health Care Financing Administration’s Budget Process Needs Improvement. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lim RH-J. A stylistic analysis of and performance suggestions for Robert Muczynski’s Second Piano Sonata, Opus 22. (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sweeney-James KA. A Wedding Night Upgrade at the Plaza. New York Times, A22 (2016).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLung Cancer Management
AbbreviationLung Cancer Manag.
ISSN (print)1758-1966
ISSN (online)1758-1974
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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