How to format your references using the Sensing and Imaging: An International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sensing and Imaging: An International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, M. S. (2009). Opening education. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5910), 89–93.
A journal article with 2 authors
Alsdorf, D. E., & Lettenmaier, D. P. (2003). Geophysics. Tracking fresh water from space. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5639), 1491–1494.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thisse, B., Wright, C. V., & Thisse, C. (2000). Activin- and Nodal-related factors control antero-posterior patterning of the zebrafish embryo. Nature, 403(6768), 425–428.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yi, P., Han, Z., Li, X., & Olson, E. N. (2006). The mevalonate pathway controls heart formation in Drosophila by isoprenylation of Ggamma1. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5791), 1301–1303.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Killops, S., & Killops, V. (2004). Introduction to Organic Geochemistry. Malden, MA USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Pal, B. D. (2015). GHG Emissions and Economic Growth: A Computable General Equilibrium Model Based Analysis for India. (V. P. Ojha, S. Pohit, & J. Roy, Eds.). New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Stein, A., & Georgiadis, N. (2008). Spatial Statistics to Quantify Patterns of Herd Dispersion in a Savanna Herbivore Community. In H. H. T. Prins & F. V. Langevelde (Eds.), Resource Ecology: Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Foraging (pp. 33–51). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sensing and Imaging: An International Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, December 31). Dolphins get high on pufferfish toxin. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). [Comments on Effect of P.L. 99-177 on Teacher Loan Cancellation Program] (No. B-221498.13). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barrie, D. B. (2010). On the interaction of wind energy with climate and weather (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2015, January 29). A New York Icon Who Shone Just Outside the Bright Lights. New York Times, p. B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSensing and Imaging: An International Journal
AbbreviationSens. Imaging
ISSN (print)1557-2064
ISSN (online)1557-2072
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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