How to format your references using the Sensing and Imaging: An International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sensing and Imaging: An International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kitayama, K. (2005). Comment on “Ecosystem properties and forest decline in contrasting long-term chronosequences.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5722), 633; author reply 633.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dalton, R., & Cyranoski, D. (2000). Baja peninsula claims five victims in tragic accident. Nature, 404(6778), 533.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meeusen, S., McCaffery, J. M., & Nunnari, J. (2004). Mitochondrial fusion intermediates revealed in vitro. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5691), 1747–1752.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Albert, B. B., de Bock, M., Derraik, J. G. B., Brennan, C. M., Biggs, J. B., Hofman, P. L., & Cutfield, W. S. (2014). Among overweight middle-aged men, first-borns have lower insulin sensitivity than second-borns. Scientific reports, 4, 3906.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Çayirci, E., & Rong, C. (2009). Security in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Greiner, W. (2009). Quantum Electrodynamics. (J. Reinhardt, Ed.) (Fourth Edition.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Söhnlein, S., Saglietti, F., Bitzer, F., Meitner, M., & Baryschew, S. (2010). Software Reliability Assessment Based on the Evaluation of Operational Experience. In B. Müller-Clostermann, K. Echtle, & E. P. Rathgeb (Eds.), Measurement, Modelling, and Evaluation of Computing Systems and Dependability and Fault Tolerance: 15th International GI/ITG Conference, MMB&DFT 2010, Essen, Germany, March 15-17, 2010. Proceedings (pp. 24–38). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sensing and Imaging: An International Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 8). Small Galaxies Contributed More To The Early Universe Than Once Thought. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Survey of Public Affairs Activities by the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (No. LCD-75-452). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ray, S. J. (2017). Departmentalized Classroom Environments Versus Traditional Classroom Environments in Second Through Fourth Grades: A Quantitative Analysis (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Valerian, S. (2013, November 6). The Long-Running Man. New York Times, p. B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSensing and Imaging: An International Journal
AbbreviationSens. Imaging
ISSN (print)1557-2064
ISSN (online)1557-2072
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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