How to format your references using the Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Simon, Condensed-matter physics: magnetic fields without magnetic fields, Nature. 515 (2014) 202–203.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Zhang, A.R. Ferré-D’Amaré, Co-crystal structure of a T-box riboswitch stem I domain in complex with its cognate tRNA, Nature. 500 (2013) 363–366.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Ghoshal, L. Chi, A.-L. Barabási, Uncovering the role of elementary processes in network evolution, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2920.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F.F.R. Damanik, T.C. Rothuizen, C. van Blitterswijk, J.I. Rotmans, L. Moroni, Towards an in vitro model mimicking the foreign body response: tailoring the surface properties of biomaterials to modulate extracellular matrix, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6325.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V. Münch, Patente, Marken, Design von A bis Z, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009.
An edited book
G. Ozyigit, U. Selek, E. Topkan, eds., Principles and Practice of Radiotherapy Techniques in Thoracic Malignancies, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Schmitt, V. Gollnick, The Regulatory Framework of the Air Transportation System, in: V. Gollnick (Ed.), Air Transport System, Springer, Vienna, 2016: pp. 73–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Smackdown! Venomous Fish Deal Drugs On Coral Reefs, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Space Station: Program Instability and Cost Growth Continue Pending Redesign, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.T. Ray, Utilization of a Clinical Reminder System to Increase the Incidence of HIV Screening in a Primary Care Clinic, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.R. Quain, The Light-Sensing Technology Carmakers Are Clamoring For, New York Times. (2017) B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSensing and Bio-Sensing Research
AbbreviationSens. BioSensing Res.
ISSN (print)2214-1804

Other styles