How to format your references using the Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watanabe M. A developing theme for AIDS. Nature 2003;426:736–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abbott A, Schiermeier Q. Deep roots of Nazi science revealed. Nature 2000;407:823–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mehta MR, Lee AK, Wilson MA. Role of experience and oscillations in transforming a rate code into a temporal code. Nature 2002;417:741–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hall K, Lee T-H, Mechler AI, Swann MJ, Aguilar M-I. Real-time measurement of membrane conformational states induced by antimicrobial peptides: balance between recovery and lysis. Sci Rep 2014;4:5479.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lakshminarayana B. Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer of Turbomachinery. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Young Lin T, Ohsuga S, Liau C-J, Hu X, Tsumoto S, editors. Foundations of Data Mining and knowledge Discovery. vol. 6. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Morris GL. Sediment Management and Sustainable Use of Reservoirs. In: Wang LK, Yang CT, editors. Modern Water Resources Engineering, Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2014, p. 279–337.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Ice ‘Lightning’ May Have Helped Life Survive Snowball Earth. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Wallop-Breaux Trust Fund. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obakhume DA. An aftercare program for female survivors of domestic abuse: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Davey M. Detroit Clears Crucial Hurdle on Bankruptcy. New York Times 2014:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
AbbreviationSemin. Fetal Neonatal Med.
ISSN (print)1744-165X
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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