How to format your references using the Scoliosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scoliosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Allara DL. A perspective on surfaces and interfaces. Nature. 2005;437:638–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Zhou Z, Zheng S. The missing link in Ginkgo evolution. Nature. 2003;423:821–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Schall JD, Paré M, Woodman GF. Comment on “Top-down versus bottom-up control of attention in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices.” Science. 2007;318:44; author reply 44.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chen Z, Appenzeller J, Lin Y-M, Sippel-Oakley J, Rinzler AG, Tang J, et al. An integrated logic circuit assembled on a single carbon nanotube. Science. 2006;311:1735.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Janovy J, Esch GW. A Century of Parasitology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Lovett T, O’Neill E, editors. Mobile Context Awareness. London: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Theron LC, Phasha N. Cultural Pathways to Resilience: Opportunities and Obstacles as Recalled by Black South African Students. In: Theron LC, Liebenberg L, Ungar M, editors. Youth Resilience and Culture: Commonalities and Complexities. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 51–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scoliosis.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Earth Has A Strange Hidden Layer Of Tectonic Plates [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Student Loans: Effect of Including Certain Types of Loans in Calculating Schools’ Default Rates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Apr. Report No.: HEHS-98-135R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Binkley PM. Relationship of Graduate Student Involvement to Graduate Alumni Donor Behavior [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon M. Wozniacki Is Lining Up for New York Marathon. New York Times. 2014 Jul 31;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScoliosis
ISSN (online)1748-7161
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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