How to format your references using the Scoliosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scoliosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Masood E. Major biodiversity initiative needs support. Nature. 2015;518:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hemmi JM, Zeil J. Robust judgement of inter-object distance by an arthropod. Nature. 2003;421:160–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bloch I I, Hansch TW, Esslinger T. Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition. Nature. 2000;403:166–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Katayama Y, Inamura Y, Mizutani T, Yamakata M, Utsumi W, Shimomura O. Macroscopic separation of dense fluid phase and liquid phase of phosphorus. Science. 2004;306:848–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Weverka P. Microsoft® PowerPoint® 2010 All-in-One for Dummies®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Parodi G, Sciulli D, editors. Social Exclusion: Short and Long Term Causes and Consequences. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lee C-C, Hervé JM. A Discontinuously Movable Constant Velocity Shaft Coupling of Koenigs Joint Type. In: Dai JS, Zoppi M, Kong X, editors. Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots I. London: Springer; 2012. p. 35–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scoliosis.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Despite Decades Of Deforestation, The Earth Is Getting Greener. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Intermodal Transportation: Results of GAO’s Survey on Air-Rail Connectivity (GAO-13-692SP, August 2013), an E-supplement to GAO-13-691. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Aug. Report No.: GAO-13-692SP.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Green RE. From Hart to Hammerstein: The music of Richard Rodgers and his evolution toward the integrated musical [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. <hl2 class=. New York Times. 2006 Jul 16;AR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScoliosis
ISSN (online)1748-7161
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles