How to format your references using the Scoliosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scoliosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Crepp JR. Astronomy. Improving planet-finding spectrometers. Science. 2014;346:809–10.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Schuster-Böckler B, Lehner B. Chromatin organization is a major influence on regional mutation rates in human cancer cells. Nature. 2012;488:504–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Berné O, Marcelino N, Cernicharo J. Waves on the surface of the Orion molecular cloud. Nature. 2010;466:947–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fernández-Pacheco A, Serrano-Ramón L, Michalik JM, Ibarra MR, De Teresa JM, O’Brien L, et al. Three dimensional magnetic nanowires grown by focused electron-beam induced deposition. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1492.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Mang T, Bobzin K, Bartels T. Industrial Tribology. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2010.
An edited book
1. D’Alessandro C. Cities and Spaces of Leadership: A Geographical Perspective. Léautier F, editor. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Anari A, Kolari JW. Profit System Models of the Corporate Sector. In: Kolari JW, editor. The Power of Profit: Business and Economic Analyses, Forecasting, and Stock Valuation. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010. p. 81–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scoliosis.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. How The Horse Can Help Us Answer One Of Evolution’s Biggest Questions [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Administration of Payroll Matters for Civilian Employees, Marine Corps Development and Education Command. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1970 Dec. Report No.: 092125.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wolff A. PRIDE: A psycho-educational peer support group for LGBTIQ youth: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hartman S. A New Life for Refugees, and the City They Adopted. New York Times. 2014 Aug 11;A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScoliosis
ISSN (online)1748-7161
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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