How to format your references using the Scoliosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scoliosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Shaw JE. Alejandro Zaffaroni (1923-2014). Nature. 2014;508:187.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Butte NF, Ellis KJ. Comment on “Obesity and the environment: where do we go from here?” Science. 2003;301:598; author reply 598.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gancarz-Kausch AM, Adank DN, Dietz DM. Prolonged withdrawal following cocaine self-administration increases resistance to punishment in a cocaine binge. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6876.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Canfield DE, Poulton SW, Knoll AH, Narbonne GM, Ross G, Goldberg T, et al. Ferruginous conditions dominated later neoproterozoic deep-water chemistry. Science. 2008;321:949–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Held G. Bulletproofing TCP/IP-based Windows NT/2000 Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2001.
An edited book
1. Rensink A, Warmer J, editors. Model Driven Architecture – Foundations and Applications: Second European Conference, ECMDA-FA 2006, Bilbao, Spain, July 10-13, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Li Y, Seymour M. Fullerenes and Carbon Nano-onions for Environmental Application. In: Hu A, Apblett A, editors. Nanotechnology for Water Treatment and Purification. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 145–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scoliosis.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Scientists Successfully Chop Out Mitochondrial DNA Mutations In Mouse Embryos. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: FHWA Should Assess and Compare the Benefits of Projects When Awarding Discretionary Grants. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Sep. Report No.: RCED-99-263.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lee MY-L. The intellectual origins of Lin Yutang’s cultural internationalism, 1928–1938 [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. Elegies for a Homeless Man By Friends He Left Behind. New York Times. 2001 Apr 15;147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScoliosis
AbbreviationScoliosis
ISSN (online)1748-7161
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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