How to format your references using the Scoliosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scoliosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Baker S. Infectious disease. A return to the pre-antimicrobial era? Science. 2015;347:1064–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lubenov EV, Siapas AG. Hippocampal theta oscillations are travelling waves. Nature. 2009;459:534–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Obata Y, Kono T, Hatada I. Gene silencing: maturation of mouse fetal germ cells in vitro. Nature. 2002;418:497.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Root TL, Price JT, Hall KR, Schneider SH, Rosenzweig C, Pounds JA. Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants. Nature. 2003;421:57–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Schoon N. Modern Islamic Banking. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Smagghe G, editor. Ecdysone: Structures and Functions. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Zazkis R, Sinclair N, Liljedahl P. On Divisibility by 4. In: Sinclair N, Liljedahl P, editors. Lesson Play in Mathematics Education: A Tool for Research and Professional Development. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 53–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scoliosis.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. This Is What Happens If You Wear Magnetic Items In An MRI Machine [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/how-dangerous-are-magnetic-items-near-mri-machine/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Projects: Extent of Projects with Unobligated Balances of Greater Than 85 Percent as of August 16, 2002. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Sep. Report No.: GAO-02-1059R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Egan GC. Understanding the reaction mechanism of aluminum nanocomposite thermites [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. State Bonds In Jeopardy As Tobacco Cash Fades. New York Times. 2012 May 4;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleScoliosis
AbbreviationScoliosis
ISSN (online)1748-7161
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles