How to format your references using the Sensors citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sensors. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McGowan, K. Masterclass: The Gathering Brainstorm. Nature 2011, 478, S19-20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sanders, R.W.; Moore, J.P. HIV: A Stamp on the Envelope. Nature 2014, 514, 437–438.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCord, T.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Hibbitts, C.A. Hydrated Salt Minerals on Ganymede’s Surface: Evidence of an Ocean Below. Science 2001, 292, 1523–1525.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Biswas, T.; Aihara, H.; Radman-Livaja, M.; Filman, D.; Landy, A.; Ellenberger, T. A Structural Basis for Allosteric Control of DNA Recombination by Lambda Integrase. Nature 2005, 435, 1059–1066.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Laplante, P.A.; Ovaska, S.J. Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118136607.
An edited book
Sustainable Transport: New Trends and Business Practices; Golinska, P., Hajdul, M., Eds.; EcoProduction. Environmental Issues in Logistics and Manufacturing; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; ISBN 9783642235498.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, X.; Dong, H.; Tian, Y. MiRNA Optical Detection. In MicroRNA Detection and Pathological Functions; Dong, H., Tian, Y., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015; pp. 57–75 ISBN 9783662472927.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sensors.

Blog post
Hale, T. Wikipedia Might Not Be The Democratic Community We Think It Is Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Student Achievement: Schools Use Multiple Strategies to Help Students Meet Academic Standards, Especially Schools with Higher Proportions of Low-Income and Minority Students; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2009;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Best, T.F. Evaluation of Effectiveness, Reproducibility, and Repeatability of Using Dentition for Estimating Cattle Age. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University: Mississippi State, MS, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. Some Inheritances Aren’t Prized. New York Times 2017, C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSensors
AbbreviationSensors (Basel)
ISSN (online)1424-8220
Analytical Chemistry
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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