How to format your references using the Scientometrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scientometrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D. (2003). When the chips are down. Nature, 424(6948), 585.
A journal article with 2 authors
von Zastrow, M., & Mostov, K. (2001). Signal transduction. A new thread in an intricate web. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5548), 1845–1847.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wood, M. J., Storz, G., & Tjandra, N. (2004). Structural basis for redox regulation of Yap1 transcription factor localization. Nature, 430(7002), 917–921.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lv, Z., Roychaudhuri, R., Condron, M. M., Teplow, D. B., & Lyubchenko, Y. L. (2013). Mechanism of amyloid β-protein dimerization determined using single-molecule AFM force spectroscopy. Scientific reports, 3, 2880.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heywood, J. (2005). Engineering Education. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Verhelst, M. (2009). Energy Scalable Radio Design: for Pulsed UWB Communication and Ranging. (W. Dehaene, Ed.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Curé, O., & Jablonski, S. (2007). Ontology-Based Data Integration in Data Logistics Workflows. In J.-L. Hainaut, E. A. Rundensteiner, M. Kirchberg, M. Bertolotto, M. Brochhausen, Y.-P. P. Chen, et al. (Eds.), Advances in Conceptual Modeling – Foundations and Applications: ER 2007 Workshops CMLSA, FP-UML, ONISW, QoIS, RIGiM,SeCoGIS, Auckland, New Zealand, November 5-9, 2007. Proceedings (pp. 34–43). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scientometrics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 22). Yes, Africa Will Feed Itself Within The Next 15 Years. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Federal Air Marshal Service: Actions Needed to Better Incorporate Risk in Deployment Strategy (No. GAO-16-582). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Iniguez, D. (2013). Mentoring through performing arts; A grant proposal for at risk youth in middle school (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2007, December 22). A Tortured Voice of a Lost Russian Generation. New York Times, p. A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon 2003; von Zastrow and Mostov 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (von Zastrow and Mostov 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Lv et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleScientometrics
ISSN (print)0138-9130
ISSN (online)1588-2861
ScopeComputer Science Applications
General Social Sciences
Library and Information Sciences

Other styles