How to format your references using the Scientometrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scientometrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Austin, J. (2014). What it takes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6190), 1422.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elbert, T., & Schauer, M. (2002). Burnt into memory. Nature, 419(6910), 883.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ronshaugen, M., McGinnis, N., & McGinnis, W. (2002). Hox protein mutation and macroevolution of the insect body plan. Nature, 415(6874), 914–917.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fuerst, P. G., Koizumi, A., Masland, R. H., & Burgess, R. W. (2008). Neurite arborization and mosaic spacing in the mouse retina require DSCAM. Nature, 451(7177), 470–474.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jarry, P., & Beneat, J. N. (2016). Microwave Amplifier and Active Circuit Design Using the Real Frequency Technique. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hornberger, N. H. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of Language and Education. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Kacprzyk, J., & Zadrożny, S. (2015). Linguistic Summaries of Time Series: A Powerful and Prospective Tool for Discovering Knowledge on Time Varying Processes and Systems. In R. Seising, E. Trillas, & J. Kacprzyk (Eds.), Towards the Future of Fuzzy Logic (pp. 65–77). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scientometrics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 25). Lab Grown Skin Could Aid Our Understanding Of Skin Disorders. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Inconsistencies in Awarding Financial Aid to Students Under Four Federal Programs (No. HRD-79-16). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li, X. (2008). Two essays on “mining market basket data: Models and applications in marketing” (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2011, October 19). Peter Mullen, Power at a Leading Law Firm, Dies at 83. New York Times, p. B19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Austin 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Austin 2014; Elbert and Schauer 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elbert and Schauer 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Fuerst et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleScientometrics
ISSN (print)0138-9130
ISSN (online)1588-2861
ScopeComputer Science Applications
General Social Sciences
Library and Information Sciences

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