How to format your references using the Scientometrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scientometrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edgerton, D. (2011). In praise of Luddism. Nature, 471(7336), 27–29.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rajsbaum, R., & García-Sastre, A. (2014). Virology. Unanchored ubiquitin in virus uncoating. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6208), 427–428.
A journal article with 3 authors
Quax, R., Kandhai, D., & Sloot, P. M. A. (2013). Information dissipation as an early-warning signal for the Lehman Brothers collapse in financial time series. Scientific reports, 3, 1898.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhu, F., Gujar, H., Gordon, J. R., Haynes, K. F., Potter, M. F., & Palli, S. R. (2013). Bed bugs evolved unique adaptive strategy to resist pyrethroid insecticides. Scientific reports, 3, 1456.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Breitmaier, E. (2005). Vom NMR-Spektrum zur Strukturformel organischer Verbindungen. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Semenov, O. (2008). ESD Protection Device and Circuit Design for Advanced CMOS Technologies. (H. Sarbishaei & M. Sachdev, Eds.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Hidayat, E., Medvedev, A., & Nordström, K. (2015). Identification of the Reichardt Elementary Motion Detector Model. In C. Sun, T. Bednarz, T. D. Pham, P. Vallotton, & D. Wang (Eds.), Signal and Image Analysis for Biomedical and Life Sciences (pp. 83–105). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scientometrics.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, August 3). #FieldworkFail Reveals The Hilarious Perils Of Science. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Federal Research and Development: Contributions to and Results of the Small Business Technology Transfer Program (No. GAO-01-766R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olson, C. R. (2017). Population genetic structure of two abyssal grenadiers of the north Atlantic and northeastern Pacific oceans (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2015, April 21). Dark Matter’s Deep Reach. New York Times, p. D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Edgerton 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Edgerton 2011; Rajsbaum and García-Sastre 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rajsbaum and García-Sastre 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleScientometrics
ISSN (print)0138-9130
ISSN (online)1588-2861
ScopeComputer Science Applications
General Social Sciences
Library and Information Sciences

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