How to format your references using the Scientometrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scientometrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hardie, D. G. (2011). Cell biology. Why starving cells eat themselves. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6016), 410–411.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rushton, M. J. D., & Chroneos, A. (2014). Impact of uniaxial strain and doping on oxygen diffusion in CeO2. Scientific reports, 4, 6068.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sauer, U., Heinemann, M., & Zamboni, N. (2007). Genetics. Getting closer to the whole picture. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5824), 550–551.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Clarkson, J. R., Baquero, E., Shubert, V. A., Myshakin, E. M., Jordan, K. D., & Zwier, T. S. (2005). Laser-initiated shuttling of a water molecule between H-bonding sites. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5714), 1443–1446.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’Homme, R. (2013). Flows and Chemical Reactions in Homogeneous Mixtures. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bestak, R., Kencl, L., Li, L. E., Widmer, J., & Yin, H. (Eds.). (2012). NETWORKING 2012: 11th International IFIP TC 6 Networking Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, May 21-25, 2012, Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 7290). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bobić, M. (2015). Congruous or Conflicting? Great Power Configurations in the Balkans. In A. Klieman (Ed.), Great Powers and Geopolitics: International Affairs in a Rebalancing World (pp. 87–111). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scientometrics.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, June 28). Some Volcanoes Become Eerily Silent Just Before They Erupt. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Readiness of USDA High-Impact Programs Improving, But More Action Is Needed (No. AIMD-99-284). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kostenbader, T. C. (2015). Analyzing students’ attitudes towards science during inquiry-based lessons (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, May 4). New Cure for Ailing Mets: Taking 2 Bases. New York Times, p. B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hardie 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Hardie 2011; Rushton and Chroneos 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rushton and Chroneos 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Clarkson et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleScientometrics
ISSN (print)0138-9130
ISSN (online)1588-2861
ScopeComputer Science Applications
General Social Sciences
Library and Information Sciences

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