How to format your references using the Scientometrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scientometrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nguyen, T. H. (2005). Security. Microchallenges of chemical weapons proliferation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5737), 1021.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weimerskirch, H., & Wilson, R. P. (2000). Oceanic respite for wandering albatrosses. Nature, 406(6799), 955–956.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carbone, F., Kwon, O.-H., & Zewail, A. H. (2009). Dynamics of chemical bonding mapped by energy-resolved 4D electron microscopy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5937), 181–184.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Saleh, M.-C., Tassetto, M., van Rij, R. P., Goic, B., Gausson, V., Berry, B., et al. (2009). Antiviral immunity in Drosophila requires systemic RNA interference spread. Nature, 458(7236), 346–350.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cousley, R. R. J. (2013). The Orthodontic Mini-Implant Clinical Handbook. Chichester, West Sussex UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Velásquez, J. D., Ríos, S. A., Howlett, R. J., & Jain, L. C. (Eds.). (2009). Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 13th International Conference, KES 2009, Santiago, Chile, September 28-30, 2009, Proceedings, Part I (Vol. 5711). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, Y., & Rui, Y. (2006). Real Time Object Tracking in Video Sequences. In R. I. Hammoud (Ed.), Interactive Video: Algorithms and Technologies (pp. 67–88). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scientometrics.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, March 29). Eleven Elephants Rescued From Muddy Bomb Crater Doom. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Readiness of State Automated Systems to Support Federal Welfare Programs (No. AIMD-99-28). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tovar, L. (2009). Perceived life satisfaction of previously undocumented Latino immigrants (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick, B. (2017, July 5). A Beachside Rave, by Way of Brooklyn. New York Times, p. D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nguyen 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Nguyen 2005; Weimerskirch and Wilson 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weimerskirch and Wilson 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Saleh et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleScientometrics
ISSN (print)0138-9130
ISSN (online)1588-2861
ScopeComputer Science Applications
General Social Sciences
Library and Information Sciences

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