How to format your references using the Scientific Drilling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scientific Drilling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P.: Clearing your own path, Nature, 420(6914), 3, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirwan, M. L. and Megonigal, J. P.: Tidal wetland stability in the face of human impacts and sea-level rise, Nature, 504(7478), 53–60, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nugent, F. S., Penick, E. C. and Kauer, J. A.: Opioids block long-term potentiation of inhibitory synapses, Nature, 446(7139), 1086–1090, 2007.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Wu, S., Ma, Z., Chen, Z. and Yu, S.: Reveal quantum correlation in complementary bases, Sci. Rep., 4, 4036, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Drago, C.: Implant Restorations, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK., 2015.
An edited book
Basten, T., Hamberg, R., Reckers, F. and Verriet, J., Eds.: Model-Based Design of Adaptive Embedded Systems, Springer, New York, NY., 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Lara, M. D. and Doyen, L.: Viable sequential decisions, in Sustainable Management of Natural Resources: Mathematical Models and Methods, edited by L. Doyen, pp. 73–106, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scientific Drilling.

Blog post
Hale, T.: A Brief History Of Unexpected Things Spiders Have Been Caught Eating, IFLScience, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: GAO Update on the Number of Prekindergarten Care and Education Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Monteiro, K. R.: An experimental study of corrective feedback on synchronous oral computer-mediated communication, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K.: The End of Innocence, New York Times, 14th October, 141, 2001.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kirwan and Megonigal, 2013; Smaglik, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kirwan and Megonigal, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleScientific Drilling
AbbreviationSci. Drill.
ISSN (print)1816-8957
ISSN (online)1816-3459
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Mechanical Engineering

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