How to format your references using the Science of the Total Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Science of the Total Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cerutti, A., 2010. Immunology. IgA changes the rules of memory. Science 328, 1646–1647.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dye, C., Gay, N., 2003. Epidemiology. Modeling the SARS epidemic. Science 300, 1884–1885.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harley, H.E., Putman, E.A., Roitblat, H.L., 2003. Bottlenose dolphins perceive object features through echolocation. Nature 424, 667–669.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Itoh, H., Takahashi, A., Adachi, K., Noji, H., Yasuda, R., Yoshida, M., Kinosita, K., 2004. Mechanically driven ATP synthesis by F1-ATPase. Nature 427, 465–468.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Steele, D., 2011. From Therapist to Coach. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Baum, R.P., Rösch, F. (Eds.), 2013. Theranostics, Gallium-68, and Other Radionuclides: A Pathway to Personalized Diagnosis and Treatment, Recent Results in Cancer Research. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Crespelle, C., Paul, C., 2005. Fully Dynamic Algorithm for Recognition and Modular Decomposition of Permutation Graphs, in: Kratsch, D. (Ed.), Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science: 31st International Workshop, WG 2005, Metz, France, June 23-25, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 38–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Science of the Total Environment.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. Protein From Mussel Glue Used To Help Prevent Scarring [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Joint Strike Fighter: Restructuring Should Improve Outcomes, but Progress Is Still Lagging Overall (No. GAO-11-450T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kwon, Y., 2009. Extreme value estimators: Their long memory feature and forecasting performances in the U.S. stock indexes (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. Juventus, Tainted by a Scandal, Tries to Regain Its Luster. New York Times B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cerutti, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Cerutti, 2010; Dye and Gay, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dye and Gay, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Itoh et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleScience of the Total Environment
AbbreviationSci. Total Environ.
ISSN (print)0048-9697
ScopeEnvironmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Waste Management and Disposal

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