How to format your references using the Australasian Plant Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australasian Plant Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bhutta ZA (2014) Infectious disease: Polio eradication hinges on child health in Pakistan. Nature 511:285–287
A journal article with 2 authors
Franchi L, Núñez G (2012) Immunology. Orchestrating inflammasomes. Science 337:1299–1300
A journal article with 3 authors
Lynch VJ, May G, Wagner GP (2011) Regulatory evolution through divergence of a phosphoswitch in the transcription factor CEBPB. Nature 480:383–386
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fyfe JC, von Salzen K, Gillett NP, et al (2013) One hundred years of Arctic surface temperature variation due to anthropogenic influence. Sci Rep 3:2645

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Riches J (2008) Galatians Through the Centuries. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford
An edited book
Booth A, Brown SL, Landale NS, et al (eds) (2012) Early Adulthood in a Family Context. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Vilanova JC, Roca M, Baleato S (2010) Bone Marrow. In: Vilanova JC (ed) Learning Musculoskeletal Imaging. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 67–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australasian Plant Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Amazing Drone Footage Of Sudan’s Mysterious & Forgotten Pyramids. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) America COMPETES Acts: Overall Appropriations Have Increased and Have Mainly Funded Existing Federal Research Entities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Casale N (2015) Generational preferences in marketing medium selections of animal adoptions in nonprofit organizations: A correlational study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wakin DJ, Walsh MW (2011) Other Orchestras Fear Paying Price for Philadelphia Pension Crisis. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bhutta 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Franchi and Núñez 2012; Bhutta 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Franchi and Núñez 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Fyfe et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralasian Plant Pathology
AbbreviationAustralas. Plant Pathol.
ISSN (print)0815-3191
ISSN (online)1448-6032
ScopePlant Science

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