How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pickup DJ. Cell biology. Propelling progeny. Science 2010;327:787–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knohl A, Veldkamp E. Global change: indirect feedbacks to rising CO2. Nature 2011;475:177–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ishikawa H, Ma Z, Barber GN. STING regulates intracellular DNA-mediated, type I interferon-dependent innate immunity. Nature 2009;461:788–92.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li Y, Chen X, Xie Y, Li X, Li F, Hou Z. Effects of young poplar plantations on understory plant diversity in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. Sci Rep 2014;4:6339.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rosenbaum J, Pearl J. Investment Banking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Khubchandani I, Paonessa N, Azimuddin K, editors. Surgical Treatment of Hemorrhoids. 2nd ed. London: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Middleton BA, Kleinebecker T. The Effects of Climate-Change-Induced Drought and Freshwater Wetlands. In: Middleton BA, editor. Global Change and the Function and Distribution of Wetlands, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012, p. 117–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Pain.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Facebook’s Algorithms Give It More Editorial Responsibility – Not Less. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Impacts of Education Reform. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Detoya MS. Canned Food Choices of College Students Using the Nuval ® Nutrient-Profiling System. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times 2015:C30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Pain
AbbreviationScand. J. Pain
ISSN (print)1877-8860
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles