How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boetius A. Ocean science. Lost City life. Science 2005;307:1420–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jeoung J-H, Dobbek H. Carbon dioxide activation at the Ni,Fe-cluster of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. Science 2007;318:1461–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jeffrey JL, Terrett JA, MacMillan DWC. O-H hydrogen bonding promotes H-atom transfer from α C-H bonds for C-alkylation of alcohols. Science 2015;349:1532–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schön JH, Dorget M, Beuran FC, Xu XZ, Arushanov E, Laguës M, et al. Field-induced superconductivity in a spin-ladder cuprate. Science 2001;293:2430–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuo JB, Lin S-C. Low-Voltage SOI CMOS VLSI Devices and Circuits. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2002.
An edited book
Rumbley LE, Helms RM, Peterson PM, Altbach PG, editors. Global Opportunities and Challenges for Higher Education Leaders: Briefs on Key Themes. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Ren B, Ge SS, Chen C, Fua C-H, Lee TH. Altitude Control of Helicopters with Unknown Dynamics. In: Ge SS, Chen C, Fua C-H, Lee TH, editors. Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems, New York, NY: Springer; 2012, p. 59–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Pain.

Blog post
Fang J. Ants Might Be Cheap, Effective Alternatives To Chemical Pesticides. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia Opportunity Scholarship Program: Additional Policies and Procedures Would Improve Internal Controls and Program Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carter IM. The discourse of the divine: Radical traditions of Black feminism, musicking, and myth within the Black public sphere (Civil Rights to the present). Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J. One-Celled Hunter With Impressive Weapon. New York Times 2017:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Pain
AbbreviationScand. J. Pain
ISSN (print)1877-8860
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles