How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turney J. Strings and things. Nature 2001;410:873.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hazeltine E, Ivry RB. Neuroscience. Can we teach the cerebellum new tricks? Science 2002;296:1979–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jasny BR, Zahn LM, Marshall E. Complex systems and networks. Connections. Introduction. Science 2009;325:405.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Santoro GE, Martonák R, Tosatti E, Car R. Theory of quantum annealing of an Ising spin glass. Science 2002;295:2427–30.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nellist JG. Understanding Telecommunications and Lightwave Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Carlet C, Sunar B, editors. Arithmetic of Finite Fields: First International Workshop, WAIFI 2007, Madrid, Spain, June 21-22, 2007. Proceedings. vol. 4547. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Fazli S, Danóczy M, Popescu F, Blankertz B, Müller K-R. Using Rest Class and Control Paradigms for Brain Computer Interfacing. In: Tan DS, Nijholt A, editors. Brain-Computer Interfaces: Applying our Minds to Human-Computer Interaction, London: Springer; 2010, p. 55–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Pain.

Blog post
Andrews R. What Color Are These Shoes? New Argument Engulfs The Internet. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Global Positioning System: Production Should Be Limited Until Receiver Reliability Problems Are Resolved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cano M. An in-home visitation program for homebound older adult Veterans: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. DeGrom Bounces Back in Style, but Cespedes Exits With Soreness. New York Times 2017:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Pain
AbbreviationScand. J. Pain
ISSN (print)1877-8860
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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