How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wiechert UH. Geology. Earth’s early atmosphere. Science 2002;298:2341–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marteau TM, Mantzari E. Public health: The case for pay to quit. Nature 2015;523:40–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Holm MS, Saravanamurugan S, Taarning E. Conversion of sugars to lactic acid derivatives using heterogeneous zeotype catalysts. Science 2010;328:602–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zeissler K, Walton SK, Ladak S, Read DE, Tyliszczak T, Cohen LF, et al. The non-random walk of chiral magnetic charge carriers in artificial spin ice. Sci Rep 2013;3:1252.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
AIChE Equipment Testing Procedure. Particle Size Classifiers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1993.
An edited book
Hayat MA, editor. Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells, Volume 5: Therapeutic Applications in Disease and Injury. vol. 5. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Mills PK, Snyder KM. Building Knowledge Advantage: Internal Market Imperatives. In: Snyder KM, editor. Knowledge Services Management: Organizing Around Internal Markets, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009, p. 70–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Pain.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Scientists Transplant Rat Testis To The Neck Of Another Rat. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Infrastructure: Interstate Physical Conditions Have Improved, but Congestion and Other Pressures Continue. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrin EM. Individual Doubles: A Look at Twinship and Attachment Theory. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Hissein Habré, A Chadian Tragedy. New York Times 2017:C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Pain
AbbreviationScand. J. Pain
ISSN (print)1877-8860
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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