How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Liechty J. Scientists and bankers - a new model army. Nature 2012;484:143.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Lobanov AP, Zensus JA. A cosmic double helix in the archetypical quasar 3C273. Science 2001;294:128–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Millonig JH, Millen KJ, Hatten ME. The mouse Dreher gene Lmx1a controls formation of the roof plate in the vertebrate CNS. Nature 2000;403:764–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Vezys V, Yates A, Casey KA, Lanier G, Ahmed R, Antia R, et al. Memory CD8 T-cell compartment grows in size with immunological experience. Nature 2009;457:196–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Bouvier J-M, Campanella OH. Extrusion Processing Technology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
[1]
Bebis G, Boyle R, Parvin B, Koracin D, Pavlidis I, Feris R, et al., editors. Advances in Visual Computing: 11th International Symposium, ISVC 2015, Las Vegas, NV, USA, December 14-16, 2015, Proceedings, Part I. vol. 9474. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Lok E, Wong ET, Sajo E. Computer Simulation of Tumor Treating Fields. In: Wong ET, editor. Alternating Electric Fields Therapy in Oncology: A Practical Guide to Clinical Applications of Tumor Treating Fields, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 41–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Pain.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Destruction of Amazon Rainforest Visible From Space. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/destruction-amazon-rainforest-visible-space/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. The Impact Aid Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Tabak S. Aspiring States at the International Court of Justice. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Last Regional Governor’s Election. New York Times 2005:A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Pain
AbbreviationScand. J. Pain
ISSN (print)1877-8860
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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