How to format your references using the Mental Health and Substance Use citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mental Health and Substance Use. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pernet, B. (2004). The cryptic filtering house of an invertebrate larva. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5702), 1757.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yu, X. M., & Luo, L. (2012). Neuroscience. dSarm-ing axon degeneration. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6093), 418–419.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karsai, M., Perra, N., & Vespignani, A. (2014). Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties. Scientific Reports, 4, 4001.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, Y.-J., Han, W., Xia, Y.-J., Cao, J.-P., & Fan, H. (2014). Quantum speed limit for arbitrary initial states. Scientific Reports, 4, 4890.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Palaveev, P. (2012). The Ensemble Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mayorga, R. V., & Perlovsky, L. I. (Eds.). (2008). Toward Artificial Sapience: Principles and Methods for Wise Systems. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Umber, A., Bajwa, I. S., & Asif Naeem, M. (2011). NL-Based Automated Software Requirements Elicitation and Specification. In A. Abraham, J. Lloret Mauri, J. F. Buford, J. Suzuki, & S. M. Thampi (Eds.), Advances in Computing and Communications: First International Conference, ACC 2011, Kochi, India, July 22-24, 2011. Proceedings, Part II (pp. 30–39). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mental Health and Substance Use.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, April 1). Microbes Caused The Extinction Of 90% Of Species 250 Million Years Ago. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Food Assistance: Computerized Information Matching Could Reduce Fraud and Abuse in the Food Stamp Program (T-RCED-98-254). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wester, A. M. (2013). Readers’ trust, socio-demographic, and acuity influences in citizen journalism credibility for disrupted online newspapers [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Link, K. (2016, August 5). Letting All the ‘What Ifs’ Out to Play. New York Times, BR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pernet, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Pernet, 2004; Yu & Luo, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yu & Luo, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Karsai et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMental Health and Substance Use
AbbreviationMent. Health Subst. Use
ISSN (print)1752-3281
ISSN (online)1752-3273
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Phychiatric Mental Health

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