How to format your references using the Mental Health and Substance Use citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mental Health and Substance Use. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benford, G. (2000). Taking control. Nature, 406(6795), 462.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lasne, F., & de Ceaurriz, J. (2000). Recombinant erythropoietin in urine. Nature, 405(6787), 635.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tripathi, S., Li, H., & Poulos, T. L. (2013). Structural basis for effector control and redox partner recognition in cytochrome P450. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6137), 1227–1230.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lee, J. G., McIlvain, B. J., Lobb, C. J., & Hill, W. T., 3rd. (2013). Analogs of basic electronic circuit elements in a free-space atom chip. Scientific Reports, 3, 1034.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sigee, D. C. (2005). Freshwater Microbiology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
König, H., Unden, G., & Fröhlich, J. (Eds.). (2009). Biology of Microorganisms on Grapes, in Must and in Wine. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ando, K., Muguruma, Y., & Yahata, T. (2008). Humanizing Bone Marrow in Immune-Deficient Mice. In T. Nomura, T. Watanabe, & S. Habu (Eds.), Humanized Mice (pp. 77–86). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mental Health and Substance Use.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 11). New class of antibiotics discovered – and why there may be more to come. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Department of Education: Improved Dissemination and Timely Product Release Would Enhance the Usefulness of the What Works Clearinghouse (No. GAO-10-644). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gambini, F. (2011). Leadership capacity for succession and sustainability in a family-owned private school (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, October 13). U.S. Coach Doesn’t Play the Superstar Card. New York Times, p. B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benford, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Benford, 2000; Lasne & de Ceaurriz, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lasne & de Ceaurriz, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Tripathi, Li, & Poulos, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lee, McIlvain, Lobb, & Hill, 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMental Health and Substance Use
AbbreviationMent. Health Subst. Use
ISSN (print)1752-3281
ISSN (online)1752-3273
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Phychiatric Mental Health

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