How to format your references using the Mental Health and Substance Use citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mental Health and Substance Use. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage, N. (2011). Fuel options: The ideal biofuel. Nature, 474(7352), S9-11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mattaini, K. R., & Vander Heiden, M. G. (2012). Cancer. Glycosylation to adapt to stress. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6097), 925–926.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murphy, R. A., Mondragón, E., & Murphy, V. A. (2008). Rule learning by rats. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5871), 1849–1851.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tzur, A., Kafri, R., LeBleu, V. S., Lahav, G., & Kirschner, M. W. (2009). Cell growth and size homeostasis in proliferating animal cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5937), 167–171.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DeRosa, T. F. (2008). Advances in Polymer Chemistry and Methods Reported in Recent US Patents. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lawrenz, W. (Ed.). (2013). CAN System Engineering: From Theory to Practical Applications (2nd ed. 2013). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Köthe, U. (2006). Low-level Feature Detection Using the Boundary Tensor. In J. Weickert & H. Hagen (Eds.), Visualization and Processing of Tensor Fields (pp. 63–79). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mental Health and Substance Use.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, November 11). Time To Take A Sick Day: Working When Ill Is Bad For You – And Your Company. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Best Management Practices: Reengineering the Air Force’s Logistics System Can Yield Substantial Savings (NSIAD-96-5). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taboada-Peña, R. (2017). A Self-Empowering Holistic Art-Based Model Designed to Promote Emotional Well-Being, Coping Skills, and Self-Esteem in Youth [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L. (2017, March 9). If ‘Looking for Accuracy,’ C.B.O. Is Fine Place to Start. New York Times, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Mattaini & Vander Heiden, 2012; Savage, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mattaini & Vander Heiden, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Murphy et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tzur et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMental Health and Substance Use
AbbreviationMent. Health Subst. Use
ISSN (print)1752-3281
ISSN (online)1752-3273
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Phychiatric Mental Health

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