How to format your references using the Journal of Mammalogy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Mammalogy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. 2004. A dose of reality. Nature 432:655.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, H. Y., and X. Gao. 2013. A universal protein tag for delivery of SiRNA-aptamer chimeras. Scientific reports 3:3129.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weiss, K. M., J. Miguel-Sanchez, and J. M. Elzerman. 2013. Magnetically tunable singlet-triplet spin qubit in a four-electron InGaAs coupled quantum dot. Scientific reports 3:3121.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yang, T. et al. 2018. Multicomponent intermetallic nanoparticles and superb mechanical behaviors of complex alloys. Science (New York, N.Y.) 362:933–937.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goria, S. 2017. Methods and Tools for Creative Competitive Intelligence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Britz, M. (ed.). 2016. European Participation in International Operations: The Role of Strategic Culture. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Glück, J., and S. Bluck. 2013. The MORE Life Experience Model: A Theory of the Development of Personal Wisdom. Pp. 75–97 in The Scientific Study of Personal Wisdom: From Contemplative Traditions to Neuroscience (M. Ferrari & N. M. Weststrate, eds.). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Mammalogy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. NASA Makes Awesome Travel Posters For Exoplanets. IFLScience. IFLScience. <> (30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Opportunities for Oversight and Improved Use of Taxpayer Funds: Examples from Selected GAO Work. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mann, H. M. 2009. Testing for differentially functioning indicators using mixtures of confirmatory factor analysis models. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Thrush, G., and D. Itzkoff. 2017. After Star Turn, Spicer Says He Regrets Berating Press Over Inauguration Crowds. New York Times:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004; Liu and Gao 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Gao 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Mammalogy
AbbreviationJ. Mammal.
ISSN (print)0022-2372
ISSN (online)1545-1542
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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