How to format your references using the Sadhana citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sadhana. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Danielson, D. 2001. Scientist’s birthright. Nature 410: 1031.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luksza, Marta, and Michael Lässig. 2014. A predictive fitness model for influenza. Nature 507: 57–61.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alves, J. F., C. J. Lada, and E. A. Lada. 2001. Internal structure of a cold dark molecular cloud inferred from the extinction of background starlight. Nature 409: 159–161.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhou, Yiming, Philip Castonguay, Eriene-Heidi Sidhom, Abbe R. Clark, Moran Dvela-Levitt, Sookyung Kim, Jonas Sieber, et al. 2017. A small-molecule inhibitor of TRPC5 ion channels suppresses progressive kidney disease in animal models. Science (New York, N.Y.) 358: 1332–1336.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bai, Ying. 2012. Practical Database Programming with Visual Basic.NET. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Henein, Michael Y., ed. 2012. Clinical Echocardiography. 2nd ed. 2012. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pequeno, Valéria, Helena Galhardas, and Vânia M. Ponte Vidal. 2015. Using Complex Correspondences for Integrating Relational Data Sources. In Enterprise Information Systems: 16th International Conference, ICEIS 2014, Lisbon, Portugal, April 27-30, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, ed. José Cordeiro, Slimane Hammoudi, Leszek Maciaszek, Olivier Camp, and Joaquim Filipe, 57–74. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sadhana.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. Rhinos Escape Caught On Video. IFLScience. IFLScience. January 14.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Some Coordination Efforts Among Programs Providing Transportation Services, but Obstacles Persist. GAO-03-697. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hertzog, Laura. 2013. Development and implementation of a prenatal postpartum depression education program for nurse practitioner students at California State University Long Beach. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2007. High Court Puts Limits On Patents. New York Times, May 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Danielson 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Danielson 2001; Luksza and Lässig 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Luksza and Lässig 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al. 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleSadhana
ISSN (print)0256-2499
ISSN (online)0973-7677

Other styles