How to format your references using the Sadhana citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sadhana. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Littlewood, Peter. 2007. Physics. Condensates made of light. Science (New York, N.Y.) 316: 989–990.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schrag, D. P., and P. F. Hoffman. 2001. Life, geology and snowball Earth. Nature 409: 306.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghoshal, Gourab, Liping Chi, and Albert-László Barabási. 2013. Uncovering the role of elementary processes in network evolution. Scientific reports 3: 2920.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ahuja, Gaurav, Ivan Ivandic, Mehmet Saltürk, Yuichiro Oka, Walter Nadler, and Sigrun I. Korsching. 2013. Zebrafish crypt neurons project to a single, identified mediodorsal glomerulus. Scientific reports 3: 2063.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blackford, Russell, and Udo Schüklenk. 2013. 50 Great Myths about Atheism. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bordogna, Gloria, and Giuseppe Psaila, ed. 2006. Flexible Databases Supporting Imprecision and Uncertainty. Vol. 203. Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. 2004. Writing Works: A Reaction to Michael Cahn’s Paper. In History of Science, History of Text, ed. Karine Chemla, 95–103. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sadhana.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. A Scientist Explains Why Your Cat Is So Weird. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 2.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Highway Trust Fund Obligations, Fiscal Years 2009 to 2011. GAO-13-193R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen, Helen Teresa. 2013. The Songs of Lori Laitman: An Analysis of Sunflowers and Early Snow. Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2010. Matsui Stars in Another Classic Bronx Tale. New York Times, April 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Littlewood 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Schrag and Hoffman 2001; Littlewood 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schrag and Hoffman 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Ahuja et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSadhana
ISSN (print)0256-2499
ISSN (online)0973-7677

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