How to format your references using the Sadhana citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sadhana. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Primavera, Jurgenne H. 2005. Global voices of science: Mangroves, fishponds, and the quest for sustainability. Science (New York, N.Y.) 310: 57–59.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pearson, Bret J., and Chris Q. Doe. 2003. Regulation of neuroblast competence in Drosophila. Nature 425: 624–628.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamashita, Yukiko M., D. Leanne Jones, and Margaret T. Fuller. 2003. Orientation of asymmetric stem cell division by the APC tumor suppressor and centrosome. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301: 1547–1550.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mancoff, F. B., N. D. Rizzo, B. N. Engel, and S. Tehrani. 2005. Phase-locking in double-point-contact spin-transfer devices. Nature 437: 393–395.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Balani, Kantesh, Vivek Verma, Arvind Agarwal, and Roger Narayan. 2014. Biosurfaces. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Eaton, Charles, M. Heinrich Seegenschmiedt, Ardeshir Bayat, Giulio Gabbiani, Paul Werker, and Wolfgang Wach, ed. 2012. Dupuytren’s Disease and Related Hyperproliferative Disorders: Principles, Research, and Clinical Perspectives. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Aubrecht, Christoph, Mario Köstl, and Klaus Steinnocher. 2011. Population Exposure and Impact Assessment: Benefits of Modeling Urban Land Use in Very High Spatial and Thematic Detail. In Computational Vision and Medical Image Processing: Recent Trends, ed. João Manuel R. S. Tavares and R. M. Natal Jorge, 75–89. Computational Methods in Applied Sciences. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sadhana.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. Why Alzheimer’s Research Is Failing To Hit Treatment Targets. IFLScience. IFLScience. September 27.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. FTS 2000 Recompetition: Opportunity Exists for Better Prices. T-IMTEC-92-1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whidby, Michael Alan. 2012. Citation handling: Processing citation texts in scientific documents. Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dinardo, Kelly. 2015. Jim Gaffigan, on Traveling With Young Children. New York Times, December 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Primavera 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Pearson and Doe 2003; Primavera 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pearson and Doe 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Mancoff et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSadhana
ISSN (print)0256-2499
ISSN (online)0973-7677

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