How to format your references using the Sadhana citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sadhana. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, Geoff. 2003. High-voltage shock sparks fusion from X-ray crush. Nature 422: 549.
A journal article with 2 authors
Excoffier, Laurent, and Grant Hamilton. 2003. Comment on “Genetic structure of human populations.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300: 1877; author reply 1877.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lampard, Gregory R., Cora A. Macalister, and Dominique C. Bergmann. 2008. Arabidopsis stomatal initiation is controlled by MAPK-mediated regulation of the bHLH SPEECHLESS. Science (New York, N.Y.) 322: 1113–1116.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Li, Xin, Guanqun Zhang, Bo Sun, Shuai Zhang, Yiqing Zhang, Yangwenke Liao, Yanhong Zhou, Xiaojian Xia, Kai Shi, and Jingquan Yu. 2013. Stimulated leaf dark respiration in tomato in an elevated carbon dioxide atmosphere. Scientific reports 3: 3433.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adamowicz, Zofia, and Paweł Zbierski. 1997. Logic of Mathematics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mouritz, A. P. 2006. Fire Properties of Polymer Composite Materials. Edited by A. G. Gibson. Vol. 143. Solid Mechanics and Its Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Alber, Yakov, and Irina Ryazantseva. 2006. APPLICATIONS OF THE REGULARIZATION METHODS. In Nonlinear Ill-posed Problems of Monotone Type, ed. Irina Ryazantseva, 259–310. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sadhana.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. Ivy League Academic Removed From Plane And Questioned After Passenger Spotted His Equations. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 9.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1983. President’s Fifth Special Message for FY 1983. OGC-83-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark, Bonnie M. 2013. Faculty Perceptions of the Importance of Internationalizing the General Education Curriculum in the Florida College System. Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John. 2017. NBC Rolls Back Promised ‘Must See TV’ Revival. New York Times, May 31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel 2003; Excoffier and Hamilton 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Excoffier and Hamilton 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSadhana
ISSN (print)0256-2499
ISSN (online)0973-7677

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