How to format your references using the Sadhana citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sadhana. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Van Duyne, Richard P. 2004. Physics. Molecular plasmonics. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306: 985–986.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kimble, Judith, and David C. Page. 2007. The mysteries of sexual identity. The germ cell’s perspective. Science (New York, N.Y.) 316: 400–401.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kovács, Ágnes Melinda, Erno Téglás, and Ansgar Denis Endress. 2010. The social sense: susceptibility to others’ beliefs in human infants and adults. Science (New York, N.Y.) 330: 1830–1834.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yang, Yong, Peng-Peng Wang, Zhi-Cheng Zhang, Hui-Ling Liu, Jingchao Zhang, Jing Zhuang, and Xun Wang. 2013. Nanowire membrane-based nanothermite: towards processable and tunable interfacial diffusion for solid state reactions. Scientific reports 3: 1694.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCall, Martin W. 2010. Classical Mechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Borisov, Nikita, and Philippe Golle, ed. 2007. Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 7th International Symposium, PET 2007 Ottawa, Canada, June 20-22, 2007 Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 4776. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Barta, A., M. Kalyna, and Z. J. Lorković. 2008. Plant SR Proteins and Their Functions. In Nuclear pre-mRNA Processing in Plants, ed. Anireddy S. N. Reddy and Maxim Golovkin, 83–102. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sadhana.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. It May Benefit Lady Birds to Get Divorced. IFLScience. IFLScience. November 5.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Continued Coordination, Operational Data, and Performance Standards Needed to Guide Research and Development. GAO-13-346T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Runyan, Taylor E. 2017. A Machine Learning Approach to Quantifying Likely Locations of Gas and Gas Hydrate Accumulation. Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Palmer, Emily. 2016. Serving as a Role Model During a Father’s Absence. New York Times, December 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Van Duyne 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Van Duyne 2004; Kimble and Page 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kimble and Page 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSadhana
ISSN (print)0256-2499
ISSN (online)0973-7677

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