How to format your references using the Sadhana citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sadhana. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam, David. 2003. British chemists warned of impending stagnation. Nature 421: 100.
A journal article with 2 authors
Powrie, Fiona, and Kevin J. Maloy. 2003. Immunology. Regulating the regulators. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299: 1030–1031.
A journal article with 3 authors
McAlonan, Kerry, James Cavanaugh, and Robert H. Wurtz. 2008. Guarding the gateway to cortex with attention in visual thalamus. Nature 456: 391–394.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bonatti, Enrico, Marco Ligi, Daniele Brunelli, Anna Cipriani, Paola Fabretti, Valentina Ferrante, Luca Gasperini, and Luisa Ottolini. 2003. Mantle thermal pulses below the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and temporal variations in the formation of oceanic lithosphere. Nature 423: 499–505.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Feldmann, Derrick. 2015. Social Movements For Good. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Faggini, Marisa, and Concetto Paolo Vinci, ed. 2010. Decision Theory and Choices: a Complexity Approach. New Economic Windows. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Krylov, Andrey, and Andrey Nasonov. 2011. Edge-Directed Image Interpolation Using Color Gradient Information. In Image Analysis and Processing – ICIAP 2011: 16th International Conference, Ravenna, Italy, September 14-16, 2011, Proceedings, Part II, ed. Giuseppe Maino and Gian Luca Foresti, 40–49. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sadhana.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2015. Watch This Origami-Inspired Robot Walk Around. IFLScience. IFLScience. November 13.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Telecommunications: FCC’s Handling of Formal Complaints Filed Against Common Carriers. RCED-93-83. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis, Jennifer Ann. 2011. Demobilizing the Minors: Examining Compliance with International Child Soldiering Laws. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, Michael. 2017. A Hole in Their Hearts, 5 Years After Hurricane Hit Staten Island. New York Times, October 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adam 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Adam 2003; Powrie and Maloy 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Powrie and Maloy 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Bonatti et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleSadhana
ISSN (print)0256-2499
ISSN (online)0973-7677

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