How to format your references using the Risks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Risks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nürnberg, D. PALEOCLIMATE: Taking the Temperature of Past Ocean Surfaces. Science 2000, 289, 1698–1699.
A journal article with 2 authors
Robles-De-La-Torre, G.; Hayward, V. Force Can Overcome Object Geometry in the Perception of Shape through Active Touch. Nature 2001, 412, 445–448.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tatano, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Tomioka, H. Unique Macrophages Different from M1/M2 Macrophages Inhibit T Cell Mitogenesis While Upregulating Th17 Polarization. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4146.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Benz, A.; Krall, M.; Schwarz, S.; Dietze, D.; Detz, H.; Andrews, A.M.; Schrenk, W.; Strasser, G.; Unterrainer, K. Resonant Metamaterial Detectors Based on THz Quantum-Cascade Structures. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4269.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, W.; Shmulevich, I.; Astola, J. Microarray Quality Control; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471728542.
An edited book
Frolov, I.E. The Arctic Basin: Results from the Russian Drifting Stations; Gudkovich, Z.M., Radionov, V.F., Shirochkov, A.V., Timokhov, L.A., Eds.; Springer Praxis Books; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; ISBN 9783540241423.
A chapter in an edited book
Callender, C. Sturmian Canons. In Mathematics and Computation in Music: 4th International Conference, MCM 2013, Montreal, QC, Canada, June 12-14, 2013. Proceedings; Yust, J., Wild, J., Burgoyne, J.A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 64–75 ISBN 9783642393563.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Risks.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Plants With Weapons Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Highway Safety: Have Automobile Weight Reductions Increased Highway Fatalities?; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Racho, M.O. Attributes of Asian American Senior Leaders Who Have Retained Their Cultural Identity and Been Successful in American Corporations. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. For $37.5 Million, the Piano Man’s Estate. New York Times 2006, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRisks
ISSN (online)2227-9091

Other styles