How to format your references using the Risks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Risks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Webb, S.C. The Earth’s “hum” is driven by ocean waves over the continental shelves. Nature 2007, 445, 754–756.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xia, Y.; Gong, J.-P. Impact of recombinant globular adiponectin on early warm ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat bile duct after liver transplantation. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6426.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rouse, G.W.; Goffredi, S.K.; Vrijenhoek, R.C. Osedax: bone-eating marine worms with dwarf males. Science 2004, 305, 668–671.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yan, H.; Yang, F.; Pan, D.; Lin, Y.; Hohman, J.N.; Solis-Ibarra, D.; Li, F.H.; Dahl, J.E.P.; Carlson, R.M.K.; Tkachenko, B.A.; et al. Sterically controlled mechanochemistry under hydrostatic pressure. Nature 2018, 554, 505–510.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bayés de Luna, A. Clinical Arrhythmology; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781444391749.
An edited book
Robinson, P.J. Behavioral Consultation and Primary Care: A Guide to Integrating Services; Reiter, J.T., Ed.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2007; ISBN 9780387329710.
A chapter in an edited book
Wiebe, R.P.; Cleveland, H.H.; Dean, L.R. Maintaining Abstinence in College: Temptations and Tactics. In Substance Abuse Recovery in College: Community Supported Abstinence; Cleveland, H.H., Harris, K.S., Wiebe, R.P., Eds.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2010; pp. 57–75 ISBN 9781441917669.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Risks.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Cosmic Inflation Claims Take a Hit Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak Faces Challenges in Improving Its Financial Condition; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, Y.-J. Copying and summarizing: Possible tools to develop English reading and writing for university students of different proficiency levels in Korea. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D.A. Weekender | Bennington, Vt. New York Times 2002, F6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRisks
ISSN (online)2227-9091

Other styles