How to format your references using the Risks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Risks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sansom, M. Louise Johnson (1940-2012). Nature 2012, 490, 488.
A journal article with 2 authors
Perepichka, D.F.; Rosei, F. Chemistry. Extending Polymer Conjugation into the Second Dimension. Science 2009, 323, 216–217.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morran, L.T.; Parmenter, M.D.; Phillips, P.C. Mutation Load and Rapid Adaptation Favour Outcrossing over Self-Fertilization. Nature 2009, 462, 350–352.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Piperno, D.R.; Weiss, E.; Holst, I.; Nadel, D. Processing of Wild Cereal Grains in the Upper Palaeolithic Revealed by Starch Grain Analysis. Nature 2004, 430, 670–673.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yan, S.Y. Computational Number Theory and Modern Cryptography; John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.: Fusionopolis Walk, Singapore, 2012; ISBN 9781118188606.
An edited book
Graph Transformations: 5th International Conference, ICGT 2010, Enschede, The Netherlands, September 27–October 2, 2010. Proceedings; Ehrig, H., Rensink, A., Rozenberg, G., Schürr, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; Vol. 6372; ISBN 9783642159275.
A chapter in an edited book
Saad, A.P.B.M.; Syahrom, A.; Harun, M.N.; Kadir, M.R.A. Conclusion. In Wear Prediction on Total Ankle Replacement: Effect of Design Parameters; Syahrom, A., Harun, M.N., Kadir, M.R.A., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 55–55 ISBN 9783319217222.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Risks.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Smartphone Microscope Diagnoses Parasitic Worm Infection Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office FAA’s Voice Communications and Administrative Computer Systems; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1989;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, M.W. Angels in Tinseltown: Health Insurance, Hormone Use, and HIV among Transgender Women in Los Angeles. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. ‘Central Park Jogger’ Series on Netflix. New York Times 2017, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRisks
ISSN (online)2227-9091

Other styles