How to format your references using the Risks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Risks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yayanos, A.A. Are Cells Viable at Gigapascal Pressures? Science 2002, 297, 295.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reisz, R.R.; Sues, H.D. The “feathers” of Longisquama. Nature 2000, 408, 428.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaminski, J.; Call, J.; Fischer, J. Word Learning in a Domestic Dog: Evidence for “Fast Mapping.” Science 2004, 304, 1682–1683.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Murayama, Y.; Kurokawa, Y.; Mayanagi, K.; Iwasaki, H. Formation and Branch Migration of Holliday Junctions Mediated by Eukaryotic Recombinases. Nature 2008, 451, 1018–1021.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rapaport, H. The Literary Theory Toolkit; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781444395693.
An edited book
Crossroads between Innate and Adaptive Immunity; Katsikis, P.D., Schoenberger, S.P., Pulendran, B., Eds.; Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2007; Vol. 590; ISBN 9780387348131.
A chapter in an edited book
Grim, K.D.; Rosen, T. Inflammatory Disorders with Unique Clinical Features. In Skin of Color: A Practical Guide to Dermatologic Diagnosis and Treatment; Alexis, A.F., Barbosa, V.H., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; pp. 45–90 ISBN 9780387849287.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Risks.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Pygmy-Possums In Hibernation Can Sense Danger From Fires Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Status of the Air Force’s Missile X Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1978;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ho, L. Determination of Ibuprofen Isotherm Using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida: Tampa, FL, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O. Friday File. New York Times 2015, C30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRisks
ISSN (online)2227-9091

Other styles