How to format your references using the Risks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Risks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fenchel, T. Microbiology. Biogeography for bacteria. Science 2003, 301, 925–926.
A journal article with 2 authors
Young, L.J.; Barrett, C.E. Neuroscience. Can oxytocin treat autism? Science 2015, 347, 825–826.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wolfsberg, T.G.; McEntyre, J.; Schuler, G.D. Guide to the draft human genome. Nature 2001, 409, 824–826.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rieseberg, L.H.; Raymond, O.; Rosenthal, D.M.; Lai, Z.; Livingstone, K.; Nakazato, T.; Durphy, J.L.; Schwarzbach, A.E.; Donovan, L.A.; Lexer, C. Major ecological transitions in wild sunflowers facilitated by hybridization. Science 2003, 301, 1211–1216.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nations, S. The Complete Book of Option Spreads and Combinations; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781118819326.
An edited book
Do Smart Adaptive Systems Exist?: Best Practice for Selection and Combination of Intelligent Methods; Gabrys, B., Leiviskä, K., Strackeljan, J., Eds.; Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; Vol. 173; ISBN 9783540240778.
A chapter in an edited book
François, D.; Pineau, A.; Zaoui, A. Elastoviscoplasticity. In Mechanical Behaviour of Materials: Volume 1: Micro- and Macroscopic Constitutive Behaviour; Pineau, A., Zaoui, A., Eds.; Solid Mechanics and Its Applications; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2012; pp. 363–444 ISBN 9789400725454.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Risks.

Blog post
Andrew, D. One Quality In Men Might Be Even More Attractive Than Good Looks And A Sense Of Humor Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Mass Transit: FTA’s New Starts Commitments for Fiscal Year 2003; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Daum, M.A. Busy Fingers, Wordless Thoughts: Entering the Knot of Compulsive Hair Twisting. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Justices Overturn $79.5 Million in Punitive Damages Against Philip Morris. New York Times 2007, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRisks
ISSN (online)2227-9091

Other styles