How to format your references using the Risks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Risks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DePinho, R.A. The Age of Cancer. Nature 2000, 408, 248–254.
A journal article with 2 authors
DeSimone, D.W.; Horwitz, A.R. Cell Biology. Many Modes of Motility. Science 2014, 345, 1002–1003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marinova, M.M.; Aharonson, O.; Asphaug, E. Mega-Impact Formation of the Mars Hemispheric Dichotomy. Nature 2008, 453, 1216–1219.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, T.Y.; Tesanovic, Z.; Liu, R.H.; Chen, X.H.; Chien, C.L. A BCS-like Gap in the Superconductor SmFeAsO0.85F0.15. Nature 2008, 453, 1224–1227.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weinberg, S. Cost-Contained Regulatory Compliance; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9780470933510.
An edited book
Balkan and Eastern European Countries in the Midst of the Global Economic Crisis; Karasavvoglou, A., Polychronidou, P., Eds.; Contributions to Economics; Physica-Verlag HD: Heidelberg, 2013; ISBN 9783790828726.
A chapter in an edited book
Hedtke, L. Constructing Matrilineal Connections in a Remembering Conversation. In Poststructural and Narrative Thinking in Family Therapy; Dickerson, V., Ed.; AFTA SpringerBriefs in Family Therapy; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 45–60 ISBN 9783319314884.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Risks.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. New Sunken Treasure Discovered In The Ancient Antikythera Shipwreck Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office NASA: Large Programs May Consume Increasing Share of Limited Future Budgets; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simmons-Johnson, N. The Path to Graduation: A Model Interactive Web Site Design Supporting Doctoral Students. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. A Floor of a World Trade Center Tower Is Splashed With Graffiti, by Invitation. New York Times 2017, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRisks
ISSN (online)2227-9091

Other styles