How to format your references using the Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McKay, C. P. (2009). Planetary science. Biologically reversible exploration. Science 323, 718.
A journal article with 2 authors
Annas, G. J., and Elias, S. (2004). Politics, morals and embryos. Nature 431, 19–20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Di Toro, G., Nielsen, S., and Pennacchioni, G. (2005). Earthquake rupture dynamics frozen in exhumed ancient faults. Nature 436, 1009–1012.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Diu, T., Faruqui, N., Sjöström, T., Lamarre, B., Jenkinson, H. F., Su, B., et al. (2014). Cicada-inspired cell-instructive nanopatterned arrays. Sci. Rep. 4, 7122.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simko, S. P. (2012). Strategic Fixed Income Investing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Giacomo, D. F. ed. (2011). The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights: From Declaration to Binding Instrument. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Richards, L. M., Towle, E. L., Fox, D. J., and Dunn, A. K. (2013). “Laser Speckle Imaging of Cerebral Blood Flow,” in Optical Methods and Instrumentation in Brain Imaging and Therapy, ed. S. J. Madsen (New York, NY: Springer), 117–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016). Some People Can’t See, But Still Think They Can: Here’s How The Brain Controls Our Vision. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Readiness Improving Yet Avoiding Disruption of Critical Services Will Require Additional Work. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Casco, D. (2014). Consonance: An inter play of music and design to evoke curiosity and awareness of our musical identity.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M. J. (2017). A Sports Betting App Raises $12 Million. New York Times, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McKay, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Annas and Elias, 2004; McKay, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Annas and Elias, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Diu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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