How to format your references using the Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morgenstern, M. (2010). Physics. STM ready for the time domain. Science 329, 1609–1610.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liechti, R., and Farmer, E. E. (2002). The jasmonate pathway. Science 296, 1649–1650.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tasker, S. Z., Standley, E. A., and Jamison, T. F. (2014). Recent advances in homogeneous nickel catalysis. Nature 509, 299–309.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee, P. N., Callaerts, P., De Couet, H. G., and Martindale, M. Q. (2003). Cephalopod Hox genes and the origin of morphological novelties. Nature 424, 1061–1065.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stevens, B. A., and Roediger, E. (2016). Breaking Negative Relationship Patterns. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Osei-Bryson, K.-M., and Ngwenyama, O. eds. (2014). Advances in Research Methods for Information Systems Research: Data Mining, Data Envelopment Analysis, Value Focused Thinking. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Pickett, C. A., Villines, T. C., and Taylor, A. J. (2013). “Auscultation and Atherosclerosis,” in Atherosclerosis: Clinical Perspectives Through Imaging, eds. A. J. Taylor and T. C. Villines (London: Springer), 59–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). Shrinking Glaciers And Drought Lead Bolivia To Declare State Of Emergency. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973). Management of the Overseas Dependents School System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis, M. (2015). Opprobrious Identities: The Enslaving Effect of Black Respectability on Queer Black Men.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Alexander, K. (2011). What Should I Stop Buying and Make Instead? New York Times, MM48.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morgenstern, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Liechti and Farmer, 2002; Morgenstern, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liechti and Farmer, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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