How to format your references using the Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewis, R. S. (2007). The molecular choreography of a store-operated calcium channel. Nature 446, 284–287.
A journal article with 2 authors
Read, S. M., and Bacic, T. (2002). Plant biology. Prime time for cellulose. Science 295, 59–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Syntichaki, P., Topalidou, I., and Thireos, G. (2000). The Gcn5 bromodomain co-ordinates nucleosome remodelling. Nature 404, 414–417.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hodgkin, S. T., Oppenheimer, B. R., Hambly, N. C., Jameson, R. F., Smartt, S. J., and Steele, I. A. (2000). Infrared spectrum of an extremely cool white-dwarf star. Nature 403, 57–59.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, B. L., Hendrix, S. B., Hedges, D. W., and Smith, T. B. (2011). Multivariate Analysis for the Biobehavioral and Social Sciences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Saucier, R. D. (2016). Reflections on Life in Higher Education. , eds. N. G. Barnes, K. K. Folkers, F. B. Hoyt, L. M. Lindgren, L. L. Lohman, M. J. Messina, et al. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Biolek, D., and Biolek, Z. (2014). “Fourth Fundamental Circuit Element: SPICE Modeling and Simulation,” in Memristors and Memristive Systems, ed. R. Tetzlaff (New York, NY: Springer), 105–162.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). Human Quadrupeds Are Not Examples of Devolution. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013). VA Education Benefits: VA Needs to Improve Program Management and Provide More Timely Information to Students. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Norton, D. A. (2013). O’Connor’s agent casual theory of free will: An evaluation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2008). Filling the Child Care Breach. New York Times, NJ3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lewis, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Lewis, 2007; Read and Bacic, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Read and Bacic, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Hodgkin et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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