How to format your references using the Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cepko, C. (2010). Neuroscience. Seeing the light of day. Science 329, 403–404.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ravi, M., and Chan, S. W. L. (2010). Haploid plants produced by centromere-mediated genome elimination. Nature 464, 615–618.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gouldstone, A., Van Vliet, K. J., and Suresh, S. (2001). Nanoindentation. Simulation of defect nucleation in a crystal. Nature 411, 656.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang, H., Liu, T., Huang, Y., Fang, Y., Liu, R., Wang, S., et al. (2014). Plasmon-driven surface catalysis in hybridized plasmonic gap modes. Sci. Rep. 4, 7087.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lu, K. (2014). Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Arabski, J., and Wojtaszek, A. eds. (2011). Aspects of Culture in Second Language Acquisition and Foreign Language Learning. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ogryczak, W. (2008). “WOWA Enhancement of the Preference Modeling in the Reference Point Method,” in Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 5th International Conference, MDAI 2008 Sabadell, Spain, October 30-31, 2008. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. V. Torra and Y. Narukawa (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 38–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017). SpaceX Will Launch A Groundbreaking MRSA Experiment To The ISS Next Week. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1974). Subcontract Estimate For E-2c Passive Detection Systems in Prime Contract With Grumman Aerospace Corporation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gamez, T. E. (2012). Preventing child maltreatment among children with non-resident fathers: A grant proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. (2017). With a Little Help From His Friends. New York Times, C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cepko, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Cepko, 2010; Ravi and Chan, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ravi and Chan, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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