How to format your references using the Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen, A. (2013). Drug development: A combined effort. Nature 502, S4-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bruick, R. K., and McKnight, S. L. (2001). A conserved family of prolyl-4-hydroxylases that modify HIF. Science 294, 1337–1340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, F., Lam, C.-H., and Tsui, O. K. C. (2014). Materials science. The surface mobility of glasses. Science 343, 975–976.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Neff, U., Burns, S. J., Mangini, A., Mudelsee, M., Fleitmann, D., and Matter, A. (2001). Strong coherence between solar variability and the monsoon in Oman between 9 and 6 kyr ago. Nature 411, 290–293.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McBain, G. D. (2012). Theory of Lift. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Plass, S., Dammann, A., Kaiser, S., and Fazel, K. eds. (2009). Multi-Carrier Systems & Solutions 2009. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Horwich, A., and Ross, G. (2008). “Circulating Tumor Markers,” in Principles of Molecular Oncology, eds. M. H. Bronchud, M. A. Foote, G. Giaccone, O. Olopade, and P. Workman (Totowa, NJ: Humana Press), 107–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2017). 2 Tragedies Intersected To Give This Man A Face Transplant — And The Story That Unfolded Is Powerful. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007). Weather Forecasting: National Weather Service’s Operations Prototype Needs More Rigorous Planning. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson, P. (2012). An exploratory study of work-related imagined interactions with real-life coworkers.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017). A Martyr So Sure of Herself. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maxmen, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Bruick and McKnight, 2001; Maxmen, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bruick and McKnight, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Neff et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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