How to format your references using the Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kreeger, K. (2002). Working your way into industry. Nature 419, 5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rui, G., and Zhan, Q. (2014). Highly sensitive beam steering with plasmonic antenna. Sci. Rep. 4, 5962.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaufman, Y. J., Tanré, D., and Boucher, O. (2002). A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system. Nature 419, 215–223.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Vik, U., Logares, R., Blaalid, R., Halvorsen, R., Carlsen, T., Bakke, I., et al. (2013). Different bacterial communities in ectomycorrhizae and surrounding soil. Sci. Rep. 3, 3471.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bullard, B. (2016). Style and Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Benth, F. E. (2013). Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance 2013: Editors: Vicky Henderson, Ronnie Sircar. , eds. D. Crisan, P. Guasoni, K. Manolarakis, J. Muhle-Karbe, C. Nee, and P. Protter Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Caravagna, G., Bortolussi, L., and Sanguinetti, G. (2016). “Matching Models Across Abstraction Levels with Gaussian Processes,” in Computational Methods in Systems Biology: 14th International Conference, CMSB 2016, Cambridge, UK, September 21-23, 2016, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. E. Bartocci, P. Lio, and N. Paoletti (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 49–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016). Extremely Rare Grizzly-Polar Bear Hybrid Shot In Canadian Arctic. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016). Aviation Security: Airport Perimeter and Access Control Security Would Benefit from Risk Assessment and Strategy Updates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mazyck, B. S. (2012). Leadership behavior and teacher attrition: A qualitative phenomenological inquiry of job satisfaction.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2008). Supreme Court Restricts the Taxation of Income of Companies Based Out of State. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kreeger, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kreeger, 2002; Rui and Zhan, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rui and Zhan, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Vik et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Gastrointestinal Cancers
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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