How to format your references using the Rhodora citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rhodora. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schneier, B. 2012. Securing medical research: a cybersecurity point of view Science 336:1527–1529.
A journal article with 2 authors
Draine, B. T. and J. P. Ostriker. 2007. Obituary: Bohdan Paczyński (1940-2007) Nature 447:1065.
A journal article with 3 authors
Watanabe, T., J. E. Náñez, and Y. Sasaki. 2001. Perceptual learning without perception Nature 413:844–848.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ouellette, D. G., P. Moetakef, T. A. Cain, J. Y. Zhang, S. Stemmer, D. Emin, and S. J. Allen. 2013. High-density two-dimensional small polaron gas in a delta-doped Mott insulator Sci. Rep. 3:3284.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Caferra, R. 2011. Logic for Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zuccon, G., S. Geva, H. Joho, F. Scholer, A. Sun, and P. Zhang (Eds.). 2015. Information Retrieval Technology: 11th Asia Information Retrieval Societies Conference, AIRS 2015, Brisbane, QLD, Australia, December 2-4, 2015. Proceedings1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Hausawi, Y. M. and W. H. Allen. 2014. An Assessment Framework for Usable-Security Based on Decision Science, pp. 33–44. In T. Tryfonas and I. Askoxylakis, eds. Human Aspects of Information Security, Privacy, and Trust: Second International Conference, HAS 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rhodora.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2016, November 15. Grime On Your Phone Can Reveal Huge Insights Into Your Life. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Transportation Infrastructure: FHWA Should Assess and Compare the Benefits of Projects When Awarding Discretionary Grants. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez, S. E. 2014. Ideal leadership practices in Head Start: Understanding leadership from the perspectives of directors and teachers. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside, K. 2017, August 25. Trying to Find a Sneaker Named For a W.N.B.A. Star? Keep Looking New York Times:B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schneier 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Draine and Ostriker 2007, Schneier 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Draine and Ostriker 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Ouellette et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleRhodora
ISSN (print)0035-4902
Plant Science

Other styles