How to format your references using the Rhodora citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rhodora. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ward, M. D. 2000. Materials science. Plastic sandwiches a la carte Nature 405:293–294.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morrison, S. J. and D. T. Scadden. 2014. The bone marrow niche for haematopoietic stem cells Nature 505:327–334.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Tonder, G. J., M. J. Lyons, and Y. Ejima. 2002. Visual structure of a Japanese Zen garden Nature 419:359–360.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kimura, Y., T. Inoue, F. Yin, and K. Tsuzaki. 2008. Inverse temperature dependence of toughness in an ultrafine grain-structure steel Science 320:1057–1060.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwedt, G. 2013. Experimente rund um die Kunststoffe des Alltags. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Thomson, M. C., R. Garcia-Herrera, and M. Beniston (Eds.). 2008. Seasonal Forecasts, Climatic Change and Human Health: Health and Climate. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Gonnissen, H., J. Schuermans, C. Politis, S. Schepers, I. Lambrichts, L. Vrielinck, and Y. Sun. 2009. Success of autogenous tooth transplantation: a retrospective and prospective approach, pp. 17–20. In O. Dössel and W. C. Schlegel, eds. World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7 - 12, 2009, Munich, Germany: Vol. 25/11 Biomedical Engineering for Audiology, Ophthalmology, Emergency & Dental Medicine. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rhodora.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015, October 14. Change Is Possible When Sexual Harassment Is Exposed. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Information Technology: Better Management of Interdependencies between Programs Supporting 2020 Census Is Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liggins, J. 2012. Self-concept education as a motivator of life effectiveness. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lanchester, J. 2017, January 10. Should We Trash Cash? New York Times:MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ward 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Ward 2000, Morrison and Scadden 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Morrison and Scadden 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kimura et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleRhodora
ISSN (print)0035-4902
Plant Science

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