How to format your references using the Rhodora citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rhodora. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ray, L. B. 2010. Metabolism. Metabolism is not boring. Introduction Science 330:1337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Voytas, D. F. and J. K. Joung. 2009. Plant science. DNA binding made easy Science 326:1491–1492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goscé, L., D. A. W. Barton, and A. Johansson. 2014. Analytical modelling of the spread of disease in confined and crowded spaces Sci. Rep. 4:4856.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Klein, T. A., J. Neumann, M. Reuter, J. Hennig, D. Y. von Cramon, and M. Ullsperger. 2007. Genetically determined differences in learning from errors Science 318:1642–1645.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ziegler, M. 2012. Geotechnische Nachweise nach EC 7 und DIN 1054. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Pereira, N. 2015. Design and Implementation of Sigma Delta Modulators (ΣΔM) for Class D Audio Amplifiers using Differential Pairs, (N. Paulino, Ed.). Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Giorello, G. and C. Sinigaglia. 2007. Space and Movement. On Husserl’s Geometry of the Visual Field, pp. 103–123. In L. Boi, P. Kerszberg, and F. Patras, eds. Rediscovering Phenomenology: Phenomenological Essays on Mathematical Beings, Physical Reality, Perception and Consciousness. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rhodora.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014, June 20. Parasitic Worm Discovered In Ancient Tomb. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Status of the Air Force’s Missile X Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nichol, K. P. 2013. English Language Learners and Gifted Identification: Exploring the Perceptions of Teachers and Parents. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L. 2017, February 19. Fact Check: What Trump Got Wrong at His Rally New York Times:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ray 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Voytas and Joung 2009, Ray 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Voytas and Joung 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Klein et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleRhodora
ISSN (print)0035-4902
Plant Science

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