How to format your references using the Rhodora citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rhodora. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Matyjaszewski, K. 2011. Chemistry. Architecturally complex polymers with controlled heterogeneity Science 333:1104–1105.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morrison, S. J. and J. Kimble. 2006. Asymmetric and symmetric stem-cell divisions in development and cancer Nature 441:1068–1074.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, D., B.-J. Lin, and A. K. Lee. 2012. Hippocampal place fields emerge upon single-cell manipulation of excitability during behavior Science 337:849–853.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yao, L., T. Wei, A. Zeng, Y. Fan, and Z. Di. 2014. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity Sci. Rep. 4:6663.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoffman, R. V. 2004. Organic Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Li, Q. (Ed.). 2014. Nanoscience with Liquid Crystals: From Self-Organized Nanostructures to Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Augustyn, D. R. 2015. Query Workload Aware Multi-histogram Based on Equi-width Sub-histograms for Selectivity Estimations of Range Queries, pp. 47–59. In S. Kozielski, D. Mrozek, P. Kasprowski, B. Małysiak-Mrozek, and D. Kostrzewa, eds. Beyond Databases, Architectures and Structures: 11th International Conference, BDAS 2015, Ustroń, Poland, May 26-29, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rhodora.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2016, June 20. Early Mammals May Have Gained Night Vision By Losing Ability To See Ultraviolet. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. School Meal Programs: Few Outbreaks of Foodborne Illness Reported. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramos, E. 2013. Emergency department utilization among Medicare enrollees: A project report. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. 2013, November 17. Seeing and Being Seen, Across Millenniums New York Times:WE10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Matyjaszewski 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Morrison and Kimble 2006, Matyjaszewski 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Morrison and Kimble 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Yao et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleRhodora
ISSN (print)0035-4902
Plant Science

Other styles