How to format your references using the Rhodora citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rhodora. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ward, M. D. 2005. Materials science. Snapshots of crystal growth Science 308:1566–1567.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holland, M. D. and A. Hastings. 2008. Strong effect of dispersal network structure on ecological dynamics Nature 456:792–794.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bergmann, D. C., W. Lukowitz, and C. R. Somerville. 2004. Stomatal development and pattern controlled by a MAPKK kinase Science 304:1494–1497.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Heath, J., E. Ayres, M. Possell, R. D. Bardgett, H. I. J. Black, H. Grant, P. Ineson, and G. Kerstiens. 2005. Rising atmospheric CO2 reduces sequestration of root-derived soil carbon Science 309:1711–1713.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 1993. Guidelines for Safe Automation of Chemical Processes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Foss, C., J. W. Gray, and Z. Whalen (Eds.). 2016. Disability in Comic Books and Graphic Narratives. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Banerjee, A. and B. Sur. 2014. Primitive Channels: Concurrency Control, pp. 13–24. In B. Sur, ed. SystemC and SystemC-AMS in Practice: SystemC 2.3, 2.2 and SystemC-AMS 1.0. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rhodora.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2017, January 16. Struggling To Stay Healthy In 2017? Bad Marketing Could Be To Blame. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1973. Protest of Air Force Contract Award. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robertson, B. 2012. Forging a New World Nationalism: Ancient Mexico in United States art and visual culture, 1933–1945. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fisher, L. 2008, February 17. QUOTATION OF THE DAY New York Times:A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ward 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Ward 2005, Holland and Hastings 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holland and Hastings 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Heath et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleRhodora
ISSN (print)0035-4902
Plant Science

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