How to format your references using the Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clary, D. C. (2005). Chemistry. Geometric phase in chemical reactions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5738), 1195–1196.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tani, K., & Stoltz, B. M. (2006). Synthesis and structural analysis of 2-quinuclidonium tetrafluoroborate. Nature, 441(7094), 731–734.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kennedy, S., Wang, D., & Ruvkun, G. (2004). A conserved siRNA-degrading RNase negatively regulates RNA interference in C. elegans. Nature, 427(6975), 645–649.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hu, J., Wang, D., Li, J., Jing, G., Ning, K., & Xu, J. (2014). Genome-wide identification of transcription factors and transcription-factor binding sites in oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis. Scientific Reports, 4, 5454.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Valizadeh, P. (2016). Field Effect Transistors, A Comprehensive Overview. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zelinka, I., Duy, V. H., & Cha, J. (Eds.). (2014). AETA 2013: Recent Advances in Electrical Engineering and Related Sciences (Vol. 282). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fontani, M., Orna, M. V., & Costa, M. (2016). Chemists in the Royal University of Florence Era (1924–46). In M. V. Orna & M. Costa (Eds.), Chemistry and Chemists in Florence: From the Last of the Medici Family to the European Magnetic Resonance Center (pp. 85–100). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, August 9). Your Brain Is Designed For Reading Even Before You Learn Your ABCs. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Airspace Use: FAA Needs to Improve Its Management of Special Use Airspace (RCED-88-147). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, R. B. (2013). Bluetooth telemetry system for a wearable electrocardiogram [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, August 27). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Political Memo; Republicans Re-Think “Family Values” Focus. New York Times, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clary, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Clary, 2005; Tani & Stoltz, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tani & Stoltz, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Kennedy et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychoanalytic Psychotherapy
AbbreviationPsychoanal. Psychother.
ISSN (print)0266-8734
ISSN (online)1474-9734
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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