How to format your references using the Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lieberman Aiden, E. (2011). GE Prize essay. Zoom! Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6060), 1222–1223.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hong, S. Y., & Kalnay, E. (2000). Role of sea surface temperature and soil-moisture feedback in the 1998 Oklahoma-Texas drought. Nature, 408(6814), 842–844.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arlettaz, R., Jones, G., & Racey, P. A. (2001). Effect of acoustic clutter on prey detection by bats. Nature, 414(6865), 742–745.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Seemann, J., Jokitalo, E., Pypaert, M., & Warren, G. (2000). Matrix proteins can generate the higher order architecture of the Golgi apparatus. Nature, 407(6807), 1022–1026.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Manasreh, O. (2011). Introduction to Nanomaterials and Devices. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kiang, T. K. L., Wilby, K. J., & Ensom, M. H. H. (Eds.). (2016). Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Drug Interactions Associated with Antiretroviral Drugs. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Narayana Swamy, B. K., & Nagaraju, Y. (2016). Methodological Issues in Social Science Research for Bioresource Conservation and Livelihood Development Under Global Climate Change. In S. Nautiyal, R. Schaldach, K. V. Raju, H. Kaechele, B. Pritchard, & K. S. Rao (Eds.), Climate Change Challenge (3C) and Social-Economic-Ecological Interface-Building: Exploring Potential Adaptation Strategies for Bio-resource Conservation and Livelihood Development (pp. 65–81). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, January 16). SpaceX Launches And Lands A Rocket For The First Time In Five Months. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Transportation Security Administration: High-Level Attention Needed to Strengthen Acquisition Function (GAO-04-544). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ma, Y. (2013). Vesicular Stomatitis Virus as a Vector to Deliver Virus-Like Particles of Human Norovirus: A New Live Vectored Vaccine for Human Norovirus [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2013, November 6). She’s Mighty, Muslim and Leaping Off the Page. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lieberman Aiden, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Hong & Kalnay, 2000; Lieberman Aiden, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hong & Kalnay, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Arlettaz et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Seemann et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychoanalytic Psychotherapy
AbbreviationPsychoanal. Psychother.
ISSN (print)0266-8734
ISSN (online)1474-9734
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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