How to format your references using the Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ueda, K. (2008). Chemistry. To be or not to be localized. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5878), 884–885.
A journal article with 2 authors
Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2003). Action video game modifies visual selective attention. Nature, 423(6939), 534–537.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jeffery, W. R., Strickler, A. G., & Yamamoto, Y. (2004). Migratory neural crest-like cells form body pigmentation in a urochordate embryo. Nature, 431(7009), 696–699.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Thornton, J. A., Kercher, J. P., Riedel, T. P., Wagner, N. L., Cozic, J., Holloway, J. S., Dubé, W. P., Wolfe, G. M., Quinn, P. K., Middlebrook, A. M., Alexander, B., & Brown, S. S. (2010). A large atomic chlorine source inferred from mid-continental reactive nitrogen chemistry. Nature, 464(7286), 271–274.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Veasey, D. A., McCormick, L. C., Hilyer, B. M., Oldfield, K. W., Hansen, S., & Krayer, T. H. (2005). Confined Space Entry and Emergency Response. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gellersen, H.-W., Want, R., & Schmidt, A. (Eds.). (2005). Pervasive Computing: Third International Conference, PERVASIVE 2005, Munich, Germany, May 8-13, 2005. Proceedings (Vol. 3468). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Blais, E. (2010). Testing Juntas: A Brief Survey. In O. Goldreich (Ed.), Property Testing: Current Research and Surveys (pp. 32–40). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, June 16). Titanium Dioxide Roofs Could Fight Air Pollution. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). Fiscal Year 2013 Agreed-Upon Procedures: Excise Tax Distributions to the Airport and Airway Trust Fund and the Highway Trust Fund (GAO-14-162R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Du, L. (2012). Economic model for vehicle ownership quota policy analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Quain, J. R. (2017, February 23). Self-Driving Cars Might Need Standards, but Whose? New York Times, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ueda, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Green & Bavelier, 2003; Ueda, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Green & Bavelier, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Jeffery et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Thornton et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychoanalytic Psychotherapy
AbbreviationPsychoanal. Psychother.
ISSN (print)0266-8734
ISSN (online)1474-9734
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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