How to format your references using the Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D. (2004). Will creativity thrive in an island paradise? Nature, 429(6988), 220–221.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smetacek, V., & Zingone, A. (2013). Green and golden seaweed tides on the rise. Nature, 504(7478), 84–88.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bloom, D. E., Canning, D., & Fink, G. (2008). Urbanization and the wealth of nations. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5864), 772–775.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Quiroga, R. Q., Reddy, L., Kreiman, G., Koch, C., & Fried, I. (2005). Invariant visual representation by single neurons in the human brain. Nature, 435(7045), 1102–1107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang, Z.-G. (2016). Internal Combustion Processes of Liquid Rocket Engines. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte Ltd.
An edited book
Eleftheriou, E., & Moheimani, S. O. R. (Eds.). (2011). Control Technologies for Emerging Micro and Nanoscale Systems (Vol. 413). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Senani, R., Bhaskar, D. R., Singh, A. K., & Singh, V. K. (2013). Synthesis of Sinusoidal Oscillators Using CFOAs. In D. R. Bhaskar, A. K. Singh, & V. K. Singh (Eds.), Current Feedback Operational Amplifiers and Their Applications (pp. 131–179). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015, October 20). Early Stages Of Schizophrenia Linked To Brain Inflammation. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Intercity Passenger Rail: Issues Associated with the Recent Settlement between Amtrak and the Consortium of Bombardier and Alstom (GAO-05-152). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Knehans, A. (2013). As you like it: The road to design [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, May 4). For Mets, It’s Injury After Injury, Year After Year. New York Times, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2004; Smetacek & Zingone, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smetacek & Zingone, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Bloom et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Quiroga et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychoanalytic Psychotherapy
AbbreviationPsychoanal. Psychother.
ISSN (print)0266-8734
ISSN (online)1474-9734
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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