How to format your references using the Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lyon, G. J. (2012). Personalized medicine: Bring clinical standards to human-genetics research. Nature, 482(7385), 300–301.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lipson, H., & Pollack, J. B. (2000). Automatic design and manufacture of robotic lifeforms. Nature, 406(6799), 974–978.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jedema, F. J., Filip, A. T., & van Wees, B. J. (2001). Electrical spin injection and accumulation at room temperature in an all-metal mesoscopic spin valve. Nature, 410(6826), 345–348.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hansen, C. J., Esposito, L., Stewart, A. I. F., Colwell, J., Hendrix, A., Pryor, W., … West, R. (2006). Enceladus’ water vapor plume. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5766), 1422–1425.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnett, A. H., & Grice, J. (2011). New Mechanisms in Glucose Control. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chen, L., & Matsuo, S. (Eds.). (2015). Security Standardisation Research: Second International Conference, SSR 2015, Tokyo, Japan, December 15-16, 2015, Proceedings (Vol. 9497). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Nakatani, M., Ohno, T., Katagiri, Y., Nakane, A., & Hashimoto, S. (2011). The Layout for the User-Friendly Manual: Case Study on an Internet Set-Up Manual. In A. Marcus (Ed.), Design, User Experience, and Usability. Theory, Methods, Tools and Practice: First International Conference, DUXU 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part II (pp. 40–45). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, October 31). The Close Door Buttons On Elevators Do Absolutely Nothing At All. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Patent and Trademark Office: Key Processes for Managing Automated Patent System Development Are Weak (No. AIMD-93-15). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Myers, R. E. (2010). Moderating the effectiveness of messages to promote physical activity in type 2 diabetes (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. (2002, November 3). Sailing Into Storms and Solitude. New York Times, p. 812.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lyon, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Lipson & Pollack, 2000; Lyon, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lipson & Pollack, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Jedema, Filip, & van Wees, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hansen et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychoanalytic Psychotherapy
AbbreviationPsychoanal. Psychother.
ISSN (print)0266-8734
ISSN (online)1474-9734
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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