How to format your references using the Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bosch, X. (2000). Anger as Spain boosts R&D figures with defence money. Nature, 407(6805), 664.
A journal article with 2 authors
Megens, M., & Aizenberg, J. (2003). Capillary attraction: like-charged particles at liquid interfaces. Nature, 424(6952), 1014; discussion 1014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, L. M., Friedman, R. M., & Roe, A. W. (2003). Optical imaging of a tactile illusion in area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5646), 881–885.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Vasudevan, R. K., Okatan, M. B., Rajapaksa, I., Kim, Y., Marincel, D., Trolier-McKinstry, S., Jesse, S., Valanoor, N., & Kalinin, S. V. (2013). Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution. Scientific Reports, 3, 2677.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Helvoort, H. (2006). SDH/SONET Explained in Functional Models. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Smith, F. O., Reaman, G. H., & Racadio, J. M. (Eds.). (2014). Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Children with Cancer. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Benton, P. A. (2007). A Developable Surface of Uniformly Negative Internal Angle Deficit. In R. Martin, M. Sabin, & J. Winkler (Eds.), Mathematics of Surfaces XII: 12th IMA International Conference, Sheffield, UK, September 4-6, 2007. Proceedings (pp. 64–77). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, December 16). Researchers grow human kidney using stem cells. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Telecommunications: Preliminary Observations about Consumer Satisfaction and Problems with Wireless Phone Service and FCC’s Efforts to Assist Consumers with Complaints (GAO-09-800T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson, P. (2012). An exploratory study of work-related imagined interactions with real-life coworkers [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Higgins, A. (2016, December 1). In Measured Speech, Putin Calls for ‘Mutually Beneficial’ Ties With U.S. New York Times, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bosch, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bosch, 2000; Megens & Aizenberg, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Megens & Aizenberg, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Chen et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Vasudevan et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychoanalytic Psychotherapy
AbbreviationPsychoanal. Psychother.
ISSN (print)0266-8734
ISSN (online)1474-9734
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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