How to format your references using the Rhizosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rhizosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morton, O., 2000. PARTICLE PHYSICS: The Final Tally Leaves LEP a Probable Loser. Science 290, 1274a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Müller, B., Sheen, J., 2008. Cytokinin and auxin interaction in root stem-cell specification during early embryogenesis. Nature 453, 1094–1097.
A journal article with 3 authors
Togashi, T., Sasaki, H., Yoshimura, J., 2014. A geometrical approach explains Lake Ball (Marimo) formations in the green alga, Aegagropila linnaei. Sci. Rep. 4, 3761.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, J., Bu, X., Wang, H., Zhu, Y., Geng, Y., Nihira, N.T., Tan, Y., Ci, Y., Wu, F., Dai, X., Guo, J., Huang, Y.-H., Fan, C., Ren, S., Sun, Y., Freeman, G.J., Sicinski, P., Wei, W., 2018. Cyclin D-CDK4 kinase destabilizes PD-L1 via cullin 3-SPOP to control cancer immune surveillance. Nature 553, 91–95.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li, F.M., Nathan, A., Wu, Y., Ong, B.S., 2011. Organic Thin Film Transistor Integration. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Rosene-Montella, K. (Ed.), 2015. Medical Management of the Pregnant Patient: A Clinician’s Handbook. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Han, Y., Wu, F., Zhuang, Y., 2011. Multi-label Image Annotation by Structural Grouping Sparsity, in: Hoi, S.C.H., Luo, J., Boll, S., Xu, D., Jin, R., King, I. (Eds.), Social Media Modeling and Computing. Springer, London, pp. 97–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rhizosphere.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Study Claims $28 Billion A Year Is Spent On Biomedical Research That Can’t Be Reproduced [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1975. Technology Transfer and Innovation Can Help Cities Identify Problems and Solutions (No. PSAD-75-110). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Solorzano, E., 2014. A mindfulness-based psycho-educational group for caregivers of older adults: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J., 2017. An Open Wound for Transgender African-Americans: ‘We’re Considered a Joke.’ New York Times A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morton, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Morton, 2000; Müller and Sheen, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Müller and Sheen, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleRhizosphere
ISSN (print)2452-2198

Other styles