How to format your references using the Rhizosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rhizosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag, H., 2004. Testing new ground. Nature 429, 682–683.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rubio, V., Deng, X.W., 2007. Plant science. Standing on the shoulders of GIGANTEA. Science 318, 206–207.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mishra, L., Derynck, R., Mishra, B., 2005. Transforming growth factor-beta signaling in stem cells and cancer. Science 310, 68–71.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ryan, J.V., Berry, A.D., Anderson, M.L., Long, J.W., Stroud, R.M., Cepak, V.M., Browning, V.M., Rolison, D.R., Merzbacher, C.I., 2000. Electronic connection to the interior of a mesoporous insulator with nanowires of crystalline RuO2. Nature 406, 169–172.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sengupta, D.L., Liepa, V.V., 2005. Applied Electromagnetics and Electromagnetic Compatibility. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Muyeen, S.M. (Ed.), 2012. Wind Energy Conversion Systems: Technology and Trends, Green Energy and Technology. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Remund, J., Klauser, D., Müller, S.C., 2016. Shortest Term Solar Energy Forecast, in: Sayigh, A. (Ed.), Renewable Energy in the Service of Mankind Vol II: Selected Topics from the World Renewable Energy Congress WREC 2014. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 35–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rhizosphere.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. Creepy, Crawly Maggots Are Actually A Medical Powerhouse [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Federal Student Aid: Progress in Integrating Pell Grant and Direct Loan Systems and Processes, but Critical Work Remains (No. GAO-03-241). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prasad, H., 2017. Removing a Thorn with a Thorn: Evaluating India’s Use of Militias in Counterinsurgency (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G., 2010. Super Powers: Turning a Dime Into a Million Bucks. New York Times WK2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoag, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Hoag, 2004; Rubio and Deng, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rubio and Deng, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Ryan et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleRhizosphere
ISSN (print)2452-2198

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