How to format your references using the Rhizosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rhizosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Osheroff, D.D., 2013. Robert Richardson (1937-2013). Nature 495, 450.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kennedy, B.M., van Soest, M.C., 2007. Flow of mantle fluids through the ductile lower crust: helium isotope trends. Science 318, 1433–1436.
A journal article with 3 authors
Libby, P., Ridker, P.M., Hansson, G.K., 2011. Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis. Nature 473, 317–325.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Langevin, Y., Poulet, F., Bibring, J.-P., Gondet, B., 2005. Sulfates in the north polar region of Mars detected by OMEGA/Mars Express. Science 307, 1584–1586.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Myatt, G.J., Johnson, W.P., 2011. Making Sense of Data III. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gornitzka, Å., Langfeldt, L. (Eds.), 2008. Borderless Knowledge: Understanding the “New” Internationalisation of Research and Higher Education in Norway, Higher Education Dynamics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Bub, L., Boltz, M., Malsch, A., Fletcher, K., 2015. The NICHE Program to Prepare the Workforce to Address the Needs of Older Patients, in: Malone, M.L., Capezuti, E.A., Palmer, R.M. (Eds.), Geriatrics Models of Care: Bringing “Best Practice” to an Aging America. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 57–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rhizosphere.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Manhattan Flood Risk Up 20-Fold Since 19th Century [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. ADP Systems: VA Actions to Improve Management of Information Resources (No. IMTEC-89-24). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goggin, S., 2009. The European Capital of Culture: The politics of a becoming Europe (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Risen, J., Risen, T., 2017. Donald Trump Does His Best Joe McCarthy. New York Times SR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Osheroff, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kennedy and van Soest, 2007; Osheroff, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kennedy and van Soest, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Langevin et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleRhizosphere
ISSN (print)2452-2198

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