How to format your references using the Rhizosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rhizosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haucke, V., 2015. Cell biology: On the endocytosis rollercoaster. Nature 517, 446–447.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yedid, G., Bell, G., 2002. Macroevolution simulated with autonomously replicating computer programs. Nature 420, 810–812.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mochizuki, K., Matsumoto, M., Ohmine, I., 2013. Defect pair separation as the controlling step in homogeneous ice melting. Nature 498, 350–354.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wollmann, P., Cui, S., Viswanathan, R., Berninghausen, O., Wells, M.N., Moldt, M., Witte, G., Butryn, A., Wendler, P., Beckmann, R., Auble, D.T., Hopfner, K.-P., 2011. Structure and mechanism of the Swi2/Snf2 remodeller Mot1 in complex with its substrate TBP. Nature 475, 403–407.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG, 2013. MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2013. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Fujiwara, A., Zhang, J. (Eds.), 2013. Sustainable Transport Studies in Asia, Lecture Notes in Mobility. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Krum, S., Hevelingen, W.V., Kero, B., Turnbull, J., McCune, J., 2013. Scaling Puppet, in: Hevelingen, W.V., Kero, B., Turnbull, J., McCune, J. (Eds.), Pro Puppet: The Definitive Guide to Selling Abroad Profitably. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp. 97–140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rhizosphere.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Brain-tingling electric thinking cap improves learning speed [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Improved Reporting Needed on National Aeronautics and Space Administration Projects (No. PSAD-77-54). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mills, A.D., 2016. Strategic school solutions: A capacity building framework for leaders accelerating 21st century teaching and learning (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mackay, I.P., 1919. SAFE DEMOCRACY. New York Times Editorial37.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Haucke, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Haucke, 2015; Yedid and Bell, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yedid and Bell, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Wollmann et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleRhizosphere
ISSN (print)2452-2198

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