How to format your references using the Rhizosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rhizosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cuervo, A.M., 2011. Cell biology. Autophagy’s top chef. Science 332, 1392–1393.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fedo, C.M., Whitehouse, M.J., 2002. Metasomatic origin of quartz-pyroxene rock, Akilia, Greenland, and implications for Earth’s earliest life. Science 296, 1448–1452.
A journal article with 3 authors
Komarova, N.L., Levy, D.N., Wodarz, D., 2013. Synaptic transmission and the susceptibility of HIV infection to anti-viral drugs. Sci. Rep. 3, 2103.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Raxworthy, C.J., Martinez-Meyer, E., Horning, N., Nussbaum, R.A., Schneider, G.E., Ortega-Huerta, M.A., Townsend Peterson, A., 2003. Predicting distributions of known and unknown reptile species in Madagascar. Nature 426, 837–841.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perry, D.E., Haluska, M.J., 2016. Hiring Greatness. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wang, X., Quinn, P.J. (Eds.), 2010. Endotoxins: Structure, Function and Recognition, Subcellular Biochemistry. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Bolatkale, M., Breems, L.J., Makinwa, K.A.A., 2014. A 2 GHz Continuous-Time ΔΣ ADC with Dynamic Error Correction, in: Breems, L.J., Makinwa, K.A.A. (Eds.), High Speed and Wide Bandwidth Delta-Sigma ADCs, Analog Circuits and Signal Processing. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 95–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rhizosphere.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. We May Be Able To Treat Depression With Anti-Inflammatory Drugs – Here’s Why [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Education’s Library: Actions Needed to Improve Usefulness (No. T-HRD-92-18). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang, T., 2013. Talking to Strangers: Chinese Youth and Social Media (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J., 2017. Protests Start a Dialogue, But About What, Exactly? New York Times A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cuervo, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Cuervo, 2011; Fedo and Whitehouse, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fedo and Whitehouse, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Raxworthy et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleRhizosphere
ISSN (print)2452-2198

Other styles