How to format your references using the Botanical Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Botanical Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jensen MH (2002) Obituary: Per Bak (1947-2002). Nature 420:284
A journal article with 2 authors
Machlis GE, McNutt MK (2010) Disasters. Scenario-building for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Science 329:1018–1019
A journal article with 3 authors
Lyon BE, Chaine AS, Winkler DW (2008) Ecology. A matter of timing. Science 321:1051–1052
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhang L, Er JC, Ghosh KK, et al (2014) Discovery of a structural-element specific G-quadruplex “light-up” probe. Sci Rep 4:3776

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris GL (2014) Investing with the Trend. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Yang L (2014) On-Orbit Operations Optimization: Modeling and Algorithms. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Santos JE, Gauzellino PM (2016) Waves in a fluid-saturated poroelastic matrix composed of two weakly coupled solids. In: Gauzellino PM (ed) Numerical Simulation in Applied Geophysics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 79–95

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Botanical Studies.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Mastodons Disappeared from the Arctic 50 Millennia Earlier Than We Thought. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Planning for Education Standards. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ponder K (2017) Easing Stress by Helping Others: How Corporate Volunteer Programs Impact the Stress of Employees Within an Organization. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J (2016) Minneapolis Grapples With a Community Being Left Behind. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jensen 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Jensen 2002; Machlis and McNutt 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Machlis and McNutt 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBotanical Studies
AbbreviationBot. Stud.
ISSN (online)1999-3110

Other styles