How to format your references using the Botanical Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Botanical Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickelgren I (2000) HYPERTENSION: Mutation Points to Salt Recycling Pathway. Science 289:23b–6b
A journal article with 2 authors
Hall A, Stouffer RJ (2001) An abrupt climate event in a coupled ocean-atmosphere simulation without external forcing. Nature 409:171–174
A journal article with 3 authors
Wild G, Gardner A, West SA (2009) Adaptation and the evolution of parasite virulence in a connected world. Nature 459:983–986
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Efeyan A, Garcia-Cao I, Herranz D, et al (2006) Tumour biology: Policing of oncogene activity by p53. Nature 443:159

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kääriäinen T, Cameron D, Kääriäinen M-L, Sherman A (2013) Atomic Layer Deposition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Agre G, Hitzler P, Krisnadhi AA, Kuznetsov SO (eds) (2014) Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, and Applications: 16th International Conference, AIMSA 2014, Varna, Bulgaria, September 11-13, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Caputo JS (2016) Peacebuilding through Dialogue in Northern Ireland. In: Roy S, Shaw IS (eds) Communicating Differences: Culture, Media, Peace and Conflict Negotiation. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 54–67

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Botanical Studies.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) How Horseshoe Crab Blood Saves Millions Of Lives. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) The National School Lunch Program: Is It Working? U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ndiaye O (2010) The Predictability of the Sahelian Climate: Seasonal Sahel Rainfall and Onset over Senegal. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz M, McKINLEY JC Jr (2017) Ex-Prisoner Found Stability Before His Deadly Outburst. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wickelgren 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Wickelgren 2000; Hall and Stouffer 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hall and Stouffer 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Efeyan et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleBotanical Studies
AbbreviationBot. Stud.
ISSN (online)1999-3110

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