How to format your references using the Botanical Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Botanical Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Matheson RR Jr (2002) 20th- to 21st-century technological challenges in soft coatings. Science 297:976–979
A journal article with 2 authors
Hilf RJC, Dutzler R (2009) Structure of a potentially open state of a proton-activated pentameric ligand-gated ion channel. Nature 457:115–118
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor AH, Allen JI, Clark PA (2002) Extraction of a weak climatic signal by an ecosystem. Nature 416:629–632
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Torres V, Ortuño R, Rodríguez-Ulibarri P, et al (2014) Mid-infrared plasmonic inductors: enhancing inductance with meandering lines. Sci Rep 4:3592

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown MA, Kaplan L (2012) The Advanced Practice Registered Nurse as a Prescriber. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Levi P (2010) Symbiotic Multi-Robot Organisms: Reliability, Adaptability, Evolution. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Barbosa VH (2013) Nonscarring Alopecias. In: Alexis AF, Barbosa VH (eds) Skin of Color: A Practical Guide to Dermatologic Diagnosis and Treatment. Springer, New York, NY, pp 91–104

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Botanical Studies.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Australian Teens Catch “Sharknado” Moment On Camera. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1969) Review of Selected Aspects of The Management and Operation of Tracking and Data Acquisition Stations at Goldstone, California. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peng E (2017) Teaching and Coaching Brazilian Jiujitsu: An Instructional Manual. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2006) Will Palaces Bring in Millions of Tourists in St. Petersburg? New York Times TR7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Matheson 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Matheson 2002; Hilf and Dutzler 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hilf and Dutzler 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Torres et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBotanical Studies
AbbreviationBot. Stud.
ISSN (online)1999-3110

Other styles