How to format your references using the Botanical Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Botanical Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Briggs DEG (2014) Adolf Seilacher (1925-2014). Nature 509:428
A journal article with 2 authors
Moore MJ, Rosbash M (2001) Cell biology. TAPping into mRNA export. Science 294:1841–1842
A journal article with 3 authors
Gneezy U, Keenan EA, Gneezy A (2014) Behavioral economics. Avoiding overhead aversion in charity. Science 346:632–635
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shafiee H, Lidstone EA, Jahangir M, et al (2014) Nanostructured optical photonic crystal biosensor for HIV viral load measurement. Sci Rep 4:4116

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Callard F, Sartorius N, Arboleda-Flórez J, et al (2012) Mental Illness, Discrimination and the Law. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Sarangarajan R, Apte S (eds) (2009) Cellular Respiration and Carcinogenesis. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ
A chapter in an edited book
Martinez-Guerra R, Mata-Machuca JL (2014) On nonlinear system diagnosis via high-gain observers: a case study. In: Mata-Machuca JL (ed) Fault Detection and Diagnosis in Nonlinear Systems: A Differential and Algebraic Viewpoint. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 55–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Botanical Studies.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) Do Try This At Home. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Federal Aviation Administration: Stronger Architecture Program Needed to Guide Systems Modernization Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown ML (2010) Examining leadership and the laminated glass ceiling: Gender and leadership traits. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2017) In Pursuit of a Social Media Mirage. New York Times C10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Briggs 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Moore and Rosbash 2001; Briggs 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moore and Rosbash 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Shafiee et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBotanical Studies
AbbreviationBot. Stud.
ISSN (online)1999-3110

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