How to format your references using the Botanical Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Botanical Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ambros V (2001) Development. Dicing up RNAs. Science 293:811–813
A journal article with 2 authors
Prokopenko M, Lizier JT (2014) Transfer entropy and transient limits of computation. Sci Rep 4:5394
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang C, Chan CT, Hu X (2014) Broadband focusing and collimation of water waves by zero refractive index. Sci Rep 4:6979
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Möller S, Perlov C, Jackson W, et al (2003) A polymer/semiconductor write-once read-many-times memory. Nature 426:166–169

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg SM (2009) Controllership. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Guillard V (2013) Food Structure and Moisture Transfer: A Modeling Approach. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Turnbull J, McCune J (2011) Puppet Scalability. In: McCune J (ed) Pro Puppet. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 89–118

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Botanical Studies.

Blog post
Davis J (2017) New Drug Therapies Can Treat Even The Most Resistant Strains Of TB. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Motorcycle Safety: Increasing Federal Funding Flexibility and Identifying Research Priorities Would Help Support States’ Safety Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pearson RS (2008) Relationship Banking in a Competitive Environment With and Without Information Sharing: The Importance of Credit Bureaus in Microfinance. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) Sing a Song of Face Creams. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ambros 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Ambros 2001; Prokopenko and Lizier 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Prokopenko and Lizier 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Möller et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleBotanical Studies
AbbreviationBot. Stud.
ISSN (online)1999-3110

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