How to format your references using the Review of African Political Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Review of African Political Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Neill, Luke A. J. 2014. “Biochemistry: Succinate Strikes.” Nature 515 (7527): 350–351.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wickens, Marvin, and Tania N. Gonzalez. 2004. “Molecular Biology. Knives, Accomplices, and RNA.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306 (5700): 1299–1300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tanaka, Gouhei, Chiyori Urabe, and Kazuyuki Aihara. 2014. “Random and Targeted Interventions for Epidemic Control in Metapopulation Models.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5522.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bruner, A. G., R. E. Gullison, R. E. Rice, and G. A. da Fonseca. 2001. “Effectiveness of Parks in Protecting Tropical Biodiversity.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 291 (5501): 125–128.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saguet, Pierre. 2013. Numerical Analysis in Electromagnetics. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gonzalez, Constancio, Colin A. Nurse, and Chris Peers, eds. 2009. Arterial Chemoreceptors: Arterial Chemoreceptors. Vol. 648. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Dai, Feng, and Yuan Xu. 2013. “Weighted Polynomial Inequalities.” In Approximation Theory and Harmonic Analysis on Spheres and Balls, edited by Yuan Xu, 105–126. Springer Monographs in Mathematics. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Review of African Political Economy.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Dear Parents, You Are Being Lied To.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Parent and Supplemental Student Loans: Volume and Default Trends for Fiscal Years 1989 to 1991. HRD-92-138FS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greene, Lorelei. 2017. “Perceptions Of Women Leaders In A Catholic Archdiocese: A Phenomenological Study.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, Linda. 2014. “After the Guests Have Left.” New York Times, June 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Neill 2014).
This sentence cites two references (O’Neill 2014; Wickens and Gonzalez 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wickens and Gonzalez 2004)
  • Three authors: (Tanaka, Urabe, and Aihara 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Bruner et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleReview of African Political Economy
AbbreviationRev. Afr. Polit. Econ.
ISSN (print)0305-6244
ISSN (online)1740-1720
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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