How to format your references using the Review of African Political Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Review of African Political Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boyle, Edward A. 2006. “Oceanography. A Direct Proxy for Oceanic Phosphorus?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5781): 1758–1759.
A journal article with 2 authors
Junge, Wolfgang, and A. William Rutherford. 2007. “Obituary: Horst Tobias Witt (1922-2007).” Nature 448 (7152): 425.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rebbeck, Clare A., Armand M. Leroi, and Austin Burt. 2011. “Mitochondrial Capture by a Transmissible Cancer.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331 (6015): 303.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Schneidman, Elad, Michael J. Berry 2nd, Ronen Segev, and William Bialek. 2006. “Weak Pairwise Correlations Imply Strongly Correlated Network States in a Neural Population.” Nature 440 (7087): 1007–1012.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Muccini, Michele, and Stefano Toffanin. 2016. Organic Light-Emitting Transistors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yu, Philip S., Jiawei Han, and Christos Faloutsos, eds. 2010. Link Mining: Models, Algorithms, and Applications. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ueno, Shinichi, Fumihiro Adachi, Kazunori Komatani, Tatsuya Kawahara, and Hiroshi G. Okuno. 2007. “Bus Information System Based on User Models and Dynamic Generation of VoiceXML Scripts.” In New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence: JSAI 2003 and JSAI 2004 Conferences and Workshops, Niigata, Japan, June 23-27, 2003 and Kanazawa, Japan, May 31 - June 4, 2004, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Akito Sakurai, Kôiti Hasida, and Katsumi Nitta, 46–60. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Review of African Political Economy.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2016. “These Are Actual Images Of Sunspots On A Star 181 Light-Years Away.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Social Security Offsets: Improvements to Program Design Could Better Assist Older Student Loan Borrowers with Obtaining Permitted Relief. GAO-17-45. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conlin, Luke D. 2012. “Building Shared Understandings in Introductory Physics Tutorials through Risk, Repair, Conflict & Comedy.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2002. “World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: Air-Show Officials Face Trial.” New York Times, September 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boyle 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Boyle 2006; Junge and Rutherford 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Junge and Rutherford 2007)
  • Three authors: (Rebbeck, Leroi, and Burt 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Schneidman et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleReview of African Political Economy
AbbreviationRev. Afr. Polit. Econ.
ISSN (print)0305-6244
ISSN (online)1740-1720
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles