How to format your references using the Review of African Political Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Review of African Political Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeWeerdt, Sarah. 2012. “Vaccines: The Take-Home Lesson.” Nature 484 (7395): S24-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miyamichi, Kazunari, and Liqun Luo. 2009. “Neuroscience. Brain Wiring by Presorting Axons.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5940): 544–545.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grenier, Isabelle A., Jean-Marc Casandjian, and Régis Terrier. 2005. “Unveiling Extensive Clouds of Dark Gas in the Solar Neighborhood.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307 (5713): 1292–1295.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hosie, Alastair M., Megan E. Wilkins, Helena M. A. da Silva, and Trevor G. Smart. 2006. “Endogenous Neurosteroids Regulate GABAA Receptors through Two Discrete Transmembrane Sites.” Nature 444 (7118): 486–489.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schmidt, Werner. 2000. Optische Spektroskopie. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Lavacchi, Alessandro. 2013. Nanotechnology in Electrocatalysis for Energy. Edited by Hamish Miller and Francesco Vizza. Vol. 170. Nanostructure Science and Technology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Laouafi, Abderrezak, Mourad Mordjaoui, and Djalel Dib. 2015. “One-Hour Ahead Electric Load Forecasting Using Neuro-Fuzzy System in a Parallel Approach.” In Computational Intelligence Applications in Modeling and Control, edited by Ahmad Taher Azar and Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan, 95–121. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Review of African Political Economy.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “Just Be Yourself: Each Shark Has Its Own Personality.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Higher Education: Ensuring Quality Education From Proprietary Institutions. T-HEHS-96-158. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hawkins, Jeffrey Todd. 2017. “A Private Solution to a Public Problem: Managing Hydraulic Fracturing Risks by Enhancing Private Governance through Mandatory Insurance Requirements.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by DAVE ITZKOFF. 2010. “A Cartoon Depiction of Real Iranian Life.” New York Times, February 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeWeerdt 2012).
This sentence cites two references (DeWeerdt 2012; Miyamichi and Luo 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miyamichi and Luo 2009)
  • Three authors: (Grenier, Casandjian, and Terrier 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hosie et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleReview of African Political Economy
AbbreviationRev. Afr. Polit. Econ.
ISSN (print)0305-6244
ISSN (online)1740-1720
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles