How to format your references using the Review of African Political Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Review of African Political Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Du Pasquier, Louis. 2005. “Immunology. Insects Diversify One Molecule to Serve Two Systems.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5742): 1826–1827.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jakob, Michael, and Jérôme Hilaire. 2015. “Climate Science: Unburnable Fossil-Fuel Reserves.” Nature 517 (7533): 150–152.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jacobs, S. S., C. F. Giulivi, and P. A. Mele. 2002. “Freshening of the Ross Sea during the Late 20th Century.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297 (5580): 386–389.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kato, Takema, Hidehito Inagaki, Kouji Yamada, Hiroshi Kogo, Tamae Ohye, Hiroe Kowa, Kayuri Nagaoka, Mariko Taniguchi, Beverly S. Emanuel, and Hiroki Kurahashi. 2006. “Genetic Variation Affects de Novo Translocation Frequency.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5763): 971.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hackshaw, Allan. 2014. A Concise Guide to Observational Studies in Healthcare. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bebis, George, Richard Boyle, Bahram Parvin, Darko Koracin, Paolo Remagnino, Ara Nefian, Gopi Meenakshisundaram, et al., eds. 2006. Advances in Visual Computing: Second International Symposium, ISVC 2006 Lake Tahoe, NV, USA, November 6-8, 2006. Proceedings, Part II. Vol. 4292. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Blossfeld, Stephan, and Dirk Gansert. 2012. “The Use of Planar Optodes in Root Studies for Quantitative Imaging.” In Measuring Roots: An Updated Approach, edited by Stefano Mancuso, 83–92. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Review of African Political Economy.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. “Koala Sperm Lasts In The Fridge, Not The Freezer.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Vocational Rehabilitation: Improved Federal Leadership Could Help States Focus Services on Those With Severe Handicaps. T-HRD-91-10. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gustus, Christine H. 2017. “E-Mentoring an Educator in a State School for the Deaf: An Action Research Study.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2011. “Athlete-Fan Dialogue Becomes Shouting Match.” New York Times, June 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Du Pasquier 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Du Pasquier 2005; Jakob and Hilaire 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jakob and Hilaire 2015)
  • Three authors: (Jacobs, Giulivi, and Mele 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kato et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleReview of African Political Economy
AbbreviationRev. Afr. Polit. Econ.
ISSN (print)0305-6244
ISSN (online)1740-1720
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles