How to format your references using the Review of African Political Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Review of African Political Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heilbron, J. L. 2002. “Coming to Terms.” Nature 415 (6872): 585.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, Gregory M., and Charles S. Craik. 2009. “Trapping Moving Targets with Small Molecules.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5924): 213–215.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lavrentovich, Oleg D., Israel Lazo, and Oleg P. Pishnyak. 2010. “Nonlinear Electrophoresis of Dielectric and Metal Spheres in a Nematic Liquid Crystal.” Nature 467 (7318): 947–950.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rubinstein, Justin L., John E. Vidale, Joan Gomberg, Paul Bodin, Kenneth C. Creager, and Stephen D. Malone. 2007. “Non-Volcanic Tremor Driven by Large Transient Shear Stresses.” Nature 448 (7153): 579–582.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lunn, George. 2005. HPLC Methods for Recently Approved Pharmaceuticals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chakraborty, Mihir K., Andrzej Skowron, Manoranjan Maiti, and Samarjit Kar, eds. 2015. Facets of Uncertainties and Applications: ICFUA, Kolkata, India, December 2013. Vol. 125. Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Snoeyink, Jack. 2011. “Degree-Driven Design for Correct Geometric Algorithms.” In Frontiers in Algorithmics and Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: Joint International Conference, FAW-AAIM 2011, Jinhua, China, May 28-31, 2011. Proceedings, edited by Mikhail Atallah, Xiang-Yang Li, and Binhai Zhu, 8–9. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Review of African Political Economy.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Quantum Physics Can Fight Fraud By Making Card Verification Unspoofable.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1983. Observations on the National School Lunch Program’s Assessment, Improvement, and Monitoring System. 124037. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whitman, Sherry. 2012. “Operational Risk and Financial Institution Leaders’ Decision Making: A Quantitative Descriptive Correlation Study.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2012. “Quenching the Desire to Run.” New York Times, November 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heilbron 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Heilbron 2002; Lee and Craik 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Craik 2009)
  • Three authors: (Lavrentovich, Lazo, and Pishnyak 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Rubinstein et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleReview of African Political Economy
AbbreviationRev. Afr. Polit. Econ.
ISSN (print)0305-6244
ISSN (online)1740-1720
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles