How to format your references using the Review of African Political Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Review of African Political Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zuber, M. T. 2001. “The Crust and Mantle of Mars.” Nature 412 (6843): 220–227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hardie, R. C., and P. Raghu. 2001. “Visual Transduction in Drosophila.” Nature 413 (6852): 186–193.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stach, Silke, Julie Benard, and Martin Giurfa. 2004. “Local-Feature Assembling in Visual Pattern Recognition and Generalization in Honeybees.” Nature 429 (6993): 758–761.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kalantry, Sundeep, Sonya Purushothaman, Randall Bryant Bowen, Joshua Starmer, and Terry Magnuson. 2009. “Evidence of Xist RNA-Independent Initiation of Mouse Imprinted X-Chromosome Inactivation.” Nature 460 (7255): 647–651.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCurley, Loui. 2016. Professional Rope Access. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gao, Yuan, Hanlin Lu, Shinnosuke Seki, and Sheng Yu, eds. 2010. Developments in Language Theory: 14th International Conference, DLT 2010, London, ON, Canada, August 17-20, 2010. Proceedings. Vol. 6224. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hemachandra, L. P. Madhubhani P., Akshaya Chandrasekaran, J. Andres Melendez, and Nadine Hempel. 2016. “Regulation of the Cellular Redox Environment by Superoxide Dismutases, Catalase, and Glutathione Peroxidases During Tumor Metastasis.” In Redox-Active Therapeutics, edited by Ines Batinić-Haberle, Júlio S. Rebouças, and Ivan Spasojević, 51–79. Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Review of African Political Economy.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2017. “9 Cancer Risks Americans Don’t Recognize — And 3 We Know Well.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. Proposed Revisions to Procurement Regulations Covering ADP Equipment and Services. B-199089. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hertzman, Rachel. 2013. “Yemen’s Migrant Networks as Critical Factor in Political Opposition to the Imamate.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Donadio, Rachel. 2017. “Russian Artist to Seek Asylum in France.” New York Times, January 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zuber 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Zuber 2001; Hardie and Raghu 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hardie and Raghu 2001)
  • Three authors: (Stach, Benard, and Giurfa 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kalantry et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleReview of African Political Economy
AbbreviationRev. Afr. Polit. Econ.
ISSN (print)0305-6244
ISSN (online)1740-1720
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles