How to format your references using the Retina citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Retina. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bartlett SD. Quantum computing: powered by magic. Nature. 2014;510(7505):345-347.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wong W, Barlow H. Tunes and templates. Nature. 2000;404(6781):952-953.
A journal article with 3 authors
Agrawal AF, Brodie ED 3rd, Brown J. Parent-offspring coadaptation and the dual genetic control of maternal care. Science. 2001;292(5522):1710-1712.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Parasoglou P, Xia D, Chang G, Regatte RR. Three-dimensional saturation transfer 31P-MRI in muscles of the lower leg at 3.0 T. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5219.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sailor MJ. Porous Silicon in Practice. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2011.
An edited book
Consoli FL, Parra JRP, Zucchi RA, eds. Egg Parasitoids in Agroecosystems with Emphasis on Trichogramma. Vol 9. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Moriceau H, Lagahe-Blanchard C, Fournel F, et al. Smart Cut Technology: The Path for Advanced SOI Substrates. In: Flandre D, Nazarov AN, Hemment PLF, eds. Science and Technology of Semiconductor-On-Insulator Structures and Devices Operating in a Harsh Environment: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Science and Technology of Semiconductor-On-Insulator Structures and Devices Operating in a Harsh Environment Kiev, Ukraine 26–30 April 2004. NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005:39-52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Retina.

Blog post
Andrew E. This Test Could Predict If You’ll Die Within Five Years. IFLScience. Published June 4, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Major ADP Systems: DOD Does Not Always Comply With Statutory Restriction on Obligations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wickramage AS. Analysis of Magnaporthe oryzae homologs of Histoplasma capsulatum RYP genes. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon MR, Nechepurenko I. U.S. Is Warned After It Downs Syrian Fighter. New York Times. June 19, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleRetina
ISSN (print)0275-004X
ISSN (online)1539-2864
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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