How to format your references using the Results in Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Results in Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zehr JP. EVOLUTION. How single cells work together. Science 2015;349:1163–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steltzer H, Post E. Ecology. Seasons and life cycles. Science 2009;324:886–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zou H, Zindler A, Niu Y. Constraints on melt movement beneath the East Pacific Rise from 230Th-238U disequilibrium. Science 2002;295:107–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yan L, Zhu B, Jiao Z, Chen C-Y, Chen I-M. An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors for permanent magnet spherical actuators with 3D magnet array. Sci Rep 2014;4:6756.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hey E. Neonatal Formulary 6. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Stock O, Schaerf M, editors. Reasoning, Action and Interaction in AI Theories and Systems: Essays Dedicated to Luigia Carlucci Aiello. vol. 4155. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Mariconda C, Tonolo A. Stirling Numbers and Eulerian Numbers. In: Tonolo A, editor. Discrete Calculus: Methods for Counting, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 105–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Results in Physics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Whatever Our Emotions Tell Us, Not All Whaling Is The Same. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. College Savings: Information on State Tuition Prepayment Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen HT. The ugly duckling: Juvenile delinquents in non-delinquent networks. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Castle S. As Clock Ticks on Exit From E.U., Britain Seems Adrift. New York Times 2017:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleResults in Physics
AbbreviationResults Phys.
ISSN (print)2211-3797
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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