How to format your references using the Respiratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Respiratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. de Kroon, Ecology. How do roots interact?, Science. 318 (2007) 1562–1563.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.W. Bagnall, D.L. McLean, Modular organization of axial microcircuits in zebrafish, Science. 343 (2014) 197–200.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.S. Dasen, J.-P. Liu, T.M. Jessell, Motor neuron columnar fate imposed by sequential phases of Hox-c activity, Nature. 425 (2003) 926–933.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Zhang, H. Wu, G. Li, Q. Huang, C. Yang, F. Huang, F. Liao, J. Lin, New high T(c) multiferroics KBiFe₂O₅ with narrow band gap and promising photovoltaic effect, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1265.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Lehman, L.G. McMillan, Options for Volatile Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
R. Meersman, H. Panetto, T. Dillon, S. Rinderle-Ma, P. Dadam, X. Zhou, S. Pearson, A. Ferscha, S. Bergamaschi, I.F. Cruz, eds., On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2012: Confederated International Conferences: CoopIS, DOA-SVI, and ODBASE 2012, Rome, Italy, September 10-14, 2012. Proceedings, Part II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Handman, L. Kedzierski, A.D. Uboldi, J.W. Goding, Fishing for Anti-Leishmania Drugs: Principles and Problems, in: H.K. Majumder (Ed.), Drug Targets in Kinetoplastid Parasites, Springer, New York, NY, 2008: pp. 48–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Respiratory Medicine.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, SpaceX Will Make History With Its Next Launch Tomorrow, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, D.C. Emergency Highway Relief Act, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V. Clément, From Adaptation to Transformation: A Resilience Perspective on Organizational Responses to Ecological Adversity, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
G. Vecsey, Paterno at the End: Far From the Coach We Thought We Knew, New York Times. (2011) B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRespiratory Medicine
AbbreviationRespir. Med.
ISSN (print)0954-6111
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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