How to format your references using the Respiratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Respiratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.M. Grant, Superconductivity. Currents without borders, Nature. 407 (2000) 139–141.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Flint, M. Munafò, Schizophrenia: genesis of a complex disease, Nature. 511 (2014) 412–413.
A journal article with 3 authors
N.D. Theise, D.S. Krause, S. Sharkis, Comment on “Little evidence for developmental plasticity of adult hematopoietic stem cells,” Science. 299 (2003) 1317; author reply 1317.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Xu, Y. Hong, H. Lu, J. Wu, Y. Chen, Association between serum free fatty acid levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5832.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O.N. Stavroudis, The Mathematics of Geometrical and Physical Optics, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2006.
An edited book
E.W. Cooper, V.V. Kryssanov, H. Ogawa, S. Brewster, eds., Haptic and Audio Interaction Design: 6th International Workshop, HAID 2011, Kusatsu, Japan, August 25-26, 2011. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Singh, S.K. Anandan, S. Malik, S. Sistla, S. Wright, Business Connectivity Services, in: S.K. Anandan, S. Malik, S. Sistla, S. Wright (Eds.), Pro SharePoint 2013 Business Intelligence Solutions, Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2013: pp. 187–245.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Respiratory Medicine.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, Focus On Temperature Ignores Other Ways To Take The Planet’s Pulse, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ Initial Expenditure Plan, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.S. Gokhin, Structural and functional roles of nebulin in skeletal muscle, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, Pragmatic Appeal to Voters To Approve School Budgets, New York Times. (2008) LI1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRespiratory Medicine
AbbreviationRespir. Med.
ISSN (print)0954-6111
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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