How to format your references using the Respiratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Respiratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F.J. Sulloway, Psychology. Birth order and intelligence, Science. 316 (2007) 1711–1712.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.A. Chandler, M. Turelli, Comment on “The hologenomic basis of speciation: gut bacteria cause hybrid lethality in the genus Nasonia,” Science. 345 (2014) 1011.
A journal article with 3 authors
X. Huang, N. Hansen, N. Tsuji, Hardening by annealing and softening by deformation in nanostructured metals, Science. 312 (2006) 249–251.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.M. Chiappe, L. Codorniú, G. Grellet-Tinner, D. Rivarola, Palaeobiology: Argentinian unhatched pterosaur fossil, Nature. 432 (2004) 571–572.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O.G. Kulinkovich, Cyclopropanes in Organic Synthesis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
K. Nakatani, Y. Tor, eds., Modified Nucleic Acids, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
O. Kalinina, U. Thumm, I. Lewandowski, Miscanthus-Complemented Grassland in Europe: Additional Source of Biomass for Bioenergy, in: S. Barth, D. Murphy-Bokern, O. Kalinina, G. Taylor, M. Jones (Eds.), Perennial Biomass Crops for a Resource-Constrained World, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 51–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Respiratory Medicine.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Experimental Immunotherapy Treatment For Brain Cancer Hailed A Success, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Inventory Management: The Army Could Reduce Logistics Costs for Aviation Parts by Adopting Best Practices, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Ahn, Student Perception of Language Achievement and Learner Autonomy in a Blended Korean Language Course: The Case Study of Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, A Love Story Affirmed Life In Time of War, New York Times. (2011) SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRespiratory Medicine
AbbreviationRespir. Med.
ISSN (print)0954-6111
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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