How to format your references using the Respiratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Respiratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Okasha, Altruism researchers must cooperate, Nature. 467 (2010) 653–655.
A journal article with 2 authors
E. Nakar, T. Piran, Detectable radio flares following gravitational waves from mergers of binary neutron stars, Nature. 478 (2011) 82–84.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.J. Peters, S.X. Chen, T. Komiyama, Emergence of reproducible spatiotemporal activity during motor learning, Nature. 510 (2014) 263–267.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Chandran, N.J. Sullivan, U. Felbor, S.P. Whelan, J.M. Cunningham, Endosomal proteolysis of the Ebola virus glycoprotein is necessary for infection, Science. 308 (2005) 1643–1645.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K. Scott, Sustainable and Green Electrochemical Science and Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2017.
An edited book
M. Helfert, B. Donnellan, eds., Practical Aspects of Design Science: European Design Science Symposium, EDSS 2011, Leixlip, Ireland, October 14, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
L.A. Pedrini, Techniques and Kinetics of Hemodiafiltration, in: A.T. Azar (Ed.), Modeling and Control of Dialysis Systems: Volume 2: Biofeedback Systems and Soft Computing Techniques of Dialysis, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 1011–1078.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Respiratory Medicine.

Blog post
R. Andrews, African Penguins Are Dying Out Thanks To Climate Change, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA Procurement: Improving Oversight of Construction Projects at the Langley Research Center, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.-H. Tu, Structural and Functional Analysis of Apolipoprotein E3/E4 Hybrid, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, A Noble Little Troupe Faces A Cruel Foe: the Rent, New York Times. (2003) 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRespiratory Medicine
AbbreviationRespir. Med.
ISSN (print)0954-6111
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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