How to format your references using the Respiratory Medicine Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Respiratory Medicine Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.J. Farrauto, Chemistry. Low-temperature oxidation of methane, Science. 337 (2012) 659–660.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Norvell, S.B. McMahon, Cell biology. Rise of the rival, Science. 327 (2010) 964–965.
A journal article with 3 authors
Z.T. Trautt, M. Upmanyu, A. Karma, Interface mobility from interface random walk, Science. 314 (2006) 632–635.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.T. Sack, J.A. Camprodon, A. Pascual-Leone, R. Goebel, The dynamics of interhemispheric compensatory processes in mental imagery, Science. 308 (2005) 702–704.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
ASAE, 7 Measures of Success, ASAE: The Center for Association Leadership, Washington, DC, 2013.
An edited book
D. Talia, Grid Middleware and Services: Challenges and Solutions, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
C. D’Alessandro, F. Léautier, Leadership, Spirals, and Trajectories, in: F. Léautier (Ed.), Cities and Spaces of Leadership: A Geographical Perspective, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016: pp. 54–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Respiratory Medicine Case Reports.

Blog post
S. Luntz, New State of Matter Discovered, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, The Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Request for Radio Frequencies, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.A. Lamanna, The structure and function of subalpine ecosystems in the face of climate change, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Justices Reject Immunity Below State Level, New York Times. (2006) A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRespiratory Medicine Case Reports
AbbreviationRespir. Med. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2213-0071
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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