How to format your references using the Respiratory Medicine Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Respiratory Medicine Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.S. Turner, Quarks and the cosmos, Science. 315 (2007) 59–61.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.B. Chuong, C. Feschotte, Evolution. Transposons up the dosage, Science. 342 (2013) 812–813.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Chalasani, A. Gupta, S. Vasudevan, Engineering new layered solids from exfoliated inorganics: a periodically alternating hydrotalcite-montmorillonite layered hybrid, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3498.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Schenkl, F. van Mourik, G. van der Zwan, S. Haacke, M. Chergui, Probing the ultrafast charge translocation of photoexcited retinal in bacteriorhodopsin, Science. 309 (2005) 917–920.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Stone, J.D. Gutiérrez-Albilla, A Companion to Luis Buñuel, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2013.
An edited book
M. Bertocchi, G. Consigli, M.A.H. Dempster, eds., Stochastic Optimization Methods in Finance and Energy: New Financial Products and Energy Market Strategies, 1st ed., Springer, New York, NY, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Saba, M.T. Paridah, M. Jawaid, K. Abdan, N.A. Ibrahim, Manufacturing and Processing of Kenaf Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy Composites via Different Methods, in: M.S. Salit, M. Jawaid, N.B. Yusoff, M.E. Hoque (Eds.), Manufacturing of Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 101–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Respiratory Medicine Case Reports.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Scientists May Have Solved Origins Of Mysterious Feature In Venus’ Atmosphere, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Contributions to the Theory and Practice of Management, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Niedringhaus, Best Practice in Early Reading Intervention: Implementing a Reading Intervention Program to Reach Below Level Readers, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Hodgman, Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman, New York Times. (2017) MM16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRespiratory Medicine Case Reports
AbbreviationRespir. Med. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2213-0071
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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