How to format your references using the Research Policy: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research Policy: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stewart, I., I., 2000. Mathematics. The Lorenz attractor exists. Nature 406, 948–949.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cox, E., Bonner, J., 2001. Ecology. The advantages of togetherness. Science 292, 448–449.
A journal article with 3 authors
Joliveau, E., Smith, J., Wolfe, J., 2004. Acoustics: tuning of vocal tract resonance by sopranos. Nature 427, 116.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Reganold, J.P., Glover, J.D., Andrews, P.K., Hinman, H.R., 2001. Sustainability of three apple production systems. Nature 410, 926–930.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonilla, L.L., Teitsworth, S.W., 2010. Nonlinear Wave Methods for Charge Transport. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Hassan, O.H., Abidin, S.Z., Anwar, R., Kamaruzaman, M.F. (Eds.), 2015. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Research of Arts, Design and Humanities (ISRADH 2014), 1st ed. 2015. ed. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhong, R., Ye, Z.-H., 2013. Transcriptional Regulation of Wood Formation in Tree Species, in: Fromm, J. (Ed.), Cellular Aspects of Wood Formation, Plant Cell Monographs. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 141–158.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research Policy: X.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Flies Evade Swatting With Fighter Jet-Like Maneuvering [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1974. Assessment of the Work Incentive Program in Washington State (No. B-164031(3)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arens, J.L., 2015. Power, Oppression, and Group Difference Interrogation: A Call to Social Justice Movement Organizations (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2015. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times C25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stewart, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Cox and Bonner, 2001; Stewart, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cox and Bonner, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Reganold et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch Policy: X
ISSN (print)2590-1451

Other styles