How to format your references using the Ecological Indicators citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Indicators. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Engheta, N., 2013. Materials science. Pursuing near-zero response. Science 340, 286–287.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hittinger, C.T., Carroll, S.B., 2007. Gene duplication and the adaptive evolution of a classic genetic switch. Nature 449, 677–681.
A journal article with 3 authors
Park, H.H., Woo, K., Ahn, J.-P., 2013. Core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles robustly fixed on the outermost surface of magnetic silica microspheres. Sci. Rep. 3, 1497.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Perillo, B., Ombra, M.N., Bertoni, A., Cuozzo, C., Sacchetti, S., Sasso, A., Chiariotti, L., Malorni, A., Abbondanza, C., Avvedimento, E.V., 2008. DNA oxidation as triggered by H3K9me2 demethylation drives estrogen-induced gene expression. Science 319, 202–206.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sears, R.W., Chard, K.M., 2016. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Piecuch, P., Maruani, J., Delgado-Barrio, G., Wilson, S. (Eds.), 2009. Advances in the Theory of Atomic and Molecular Systems: Conceptual and Computational Advances in Quantum Chemistry, 1st ed, Progress in Theoretical Chemistry and Physics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, H., Shi, H., 2012. Knowledge Reduction Based on Evidence Reasoning Theory in Interval Ordered Information Systems, in: Huang, D.-S., Ma, J., Jo, K.-H., Gromiha, M.M. (Eds.), Intelligent Computing Theories and Applications: 8th International Conference, ICIC 2012, Huangshan, China, July 25-29, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 27–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Indicators.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Drunken Monkeys? Only Humans Really Don’t Know When They’ve Had Enough [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Aviation Safety: FAA Has Taken Steps to Determine That It Has Made Correct Medical Certification Decisions (No. GAO-08-997). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Collins, L., 2009. A community risk assessment of the 90062 zip code (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M.J., 2017. Investors Give $90 Million To a Flying Car Start-Up. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Engheta, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Engheta, 2013; Hittinger and Carroll, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hittinger and Carroll, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Perillo et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Indicators
AbbreviationEcol. Indic.
ISSN (print)1470-160X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Decision Sciences

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