How to format your references using the Ecological Indicators citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Indicators. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag, H., 2005. Ontario. Nature 434, 676–677.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nachev, P., Husain, M., 2007. Comment on “Detecting awareness in the vegetative state.” Science 315, 1221; author reply 1221.
A journal article with 3 authors
González-Gutiérrez, J., Carrillo-Estrada, J.L., Ruiz-Suárez, J.C., 2014. Penetration of granular projectiles into a water target. Sci. Rep. 4, 6762.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Takagi, J., Itabashi, T., Suzuki, K., Ishiwata, S., 2013. Chromosome position at the spindle equator is regulated by chromokinesin and a bipolar microtubule array. Sci. Rep. 3, 2808.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunne, R.A., 2006. A Statistical Approach to Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Spagnolie, S.E. (Ed.), 2015. Complex Fluids in Biological Systems: Experiment, Theory, and Computation, Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Fishman, L.M., Polesin, A., Sampson, S., 2007. Piriformis Syndrome, in: Cooper, G. (Ed.), Therapeutic Uses of Botulinum Toxin. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 61–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Indicators.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. The Antibodies That Were Invented To Help Immunologists Find GOD [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012. Social Security Administration: Improved Planning and Performance Measures Are Needed to Help Ensure Successful Technology Modernization (No. GAO-12-495). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haffner, I., 2017. Experimental Investigation of Temperature Dependency in Transmission Characteristics of Liquid Crystals by Spectroscopy (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J., 2016. A Civil War Classic Endures. New York Times BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoag, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hoag, 2005; Nachev and Husain, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nachev and Husain, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Takagi et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Indicators
AbbreviationEcol. Indic.
ISSN (print)1470-160X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Decision Sciences

Other styles