How to format your references using the Ecological Indicators citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Indicators. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferry, G., 2013. Scientific heritage: Science today, history tomorrow. Nature 493, 19–21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, D., Savidge, T., 2015. BIOPHYSICS. Comment on “Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase.” Science 349, 936.
A journal article with 3 authors
Clem, R.L., Celikel, T., Barth, A.L., 2008. Ongoing in vivo experience triggers synaptic metaplasticity in the neocortex. Science 319, 101–104.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fragner, A., Göppl, M., Fink, J.M., Baur, M., Bianchetti, R., Leek, P.J., Blais, A., Wallraff, A., 2008. Resolving vacuum fluctuations in an electrical circuit by measuring the Lamb shift. Science 322, 1357–1360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alhabeeb, M.J., 2012. Mathematical Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Arino, O., Hbid, M.L., Dads, E.A. (Eds.), 2006. Delay Differential Equations and Applications, NATO Science Series, II. Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
D’Auria, R., Trigiante, M., 2016. The Poincaré Group, in: Trigiante, M. (Ed.), From Special Relativity to Feynman Diagrams: A Course in Theoretical Particle Physics for Beginners, UNITEXT for Physics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 95–142.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Indicators.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Here’s Which Drugs And Sexually Transmitted Diseases Are Most Common In Europe [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Highlights of a Forum: Ensuring Opportunities for Disadvantaged Children and Families (No. GAO-09-18SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryant, J.D., 2014. The Investigation of Self-Determination in Students Participating in Higher Education with an Invisible Disability (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S., 2017. New Era After O’Reilly? Women Aren’t So Sure. New York Times B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ferry, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Chen and Savidge, 2015; Ferry, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Savidge, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Fragner et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Indicators
AbbreviationEcol. Indic.
ISSN (print)1470-160X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Decision Sciences

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