How to format your references using the Ecological Indicators citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Indicators. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dantzer, B., 2015. Ecology. Mothers shape ecological communities. Science 347, 822–823.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tedford, R.H., Harington, C.R., 2003. An Arctic mammal fauna from the Early Pliocene of North America. Nature 425, 388–390.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smolin, J.A., Smith, G., Vargo, A., 2013. Oversimplifying quantum factoring. Nature 499, 163–165.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Alessandrini, M., Micarelli, A., Chiaravalloti, A., Candidi, M., Bruno, E., Di Pietro, B., Schillaci, O., Pagani, M., 2014. Cortico-subcortical metabolic correlates of olfactory processing in healthy resting subjects. Sci. Rep. 4, 5146.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaisler, S.H., 2005. Software Paradigms. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Laber, E.S., Bornstein, C., Nogueira, L.T., Faria, L. (Eds.), 2008. LATIN 2008: Theoretical Informatics: 8th Latin American Symposium, Búzios, Brazil, April 7-11, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Enficiaud, R., 2010. Queue and Priority Queue Based Algorithms for Computing the Quasi-distance Transform, in: Campilho, A., Kamel, M. (Eds.), Image Analysis and Recognition: 7th International Conference, ICIAR 2010, Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal, June 21-23, 2010. Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Indicators.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2016. British Astronaut Tim Peake Is Returning To Earth This Weekend [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. FTS 2000: Mandatory Use (No. IMTEC-92-33R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Driskill, K.M., 2010. A qualitative study of teacher understanding and use of differentiated instruction to promote reading achievement (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2017. Houston And Dallas Get Relief On Pensions. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dantzer, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Dantzer, 2015; Tedford and Harington, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tedford and Harington, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Alessandrini et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Indicators
AbbreviationEcol. Indic.
ISSN (print)1470-160X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Decision Sciences

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