How to format your references using the Ecological Indicators citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Indicators. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nelson, W.J., 2003. Adaptation of core mechanisms to generate cell polarity. Nature 422, 766–774.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arenkiel, B.R., Ehlers, M.D., 2009. Molecular genetics and imaging technologies for circuit-based neuroanatomy. Nature 461, 900–907.
A journal article with 3 authors
Imaizumi, K., Shih, J.Y., Farris, H.E., 2013. Global hyper-synchronous spontaneous activity in the developing optic tectum. Sci. Rep. 3, 1552.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bell, R.E., Ferraccioli, F., Creyts, T.T., Braaten, D., Corr, H., Das, I., Damaske, D., Frearson, N., Jordan, T., Rose, K., Studinger, M., Wolovick, M., 2011. Widespread persistent thickening of the East Antarctic ice sheet by freezing from the base. Science 331, 1592–1595.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, W., Chou, X., Shi, T., Ma, Z., Bao, H., Chen, J., Chen, L., Li, D., Xue, C., 2016. Measurement Technology for Micro-Nanometer Devices. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Greilhuber, J., Dolezel, J., Wendel, J.F. (Eds.), 2013. Plant Genome Diversity Volume 2: Physical Structure, Behaviour and Evolution of Plant Genomes. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Banach, R., 2008. Model Based Refinement and the Tools of Tomorrow, in: Börger, E., Butler, M., Bowen, J.P., Boca, P. (Eds.), Abstract State Machines, B and Z: First International Conference, ABZ 2008, London, UK, September 16-18, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 42–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Indicators.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Magic Mushrooms Shown To Ease Severe Depression In Groundbreaking Study [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. District of Columbia Public Schools: Enrollment Count Still Appears Vulnerable to Errors (No. T-HEHS-98-91). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Camaya, C., 2015. Teachers’ perceptions of social skills instruction for children with autism spectrum disorders (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines, M., 2017. Wisconsin Law Deterred Voters, Study Finds. New York Times A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nelson, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Arenkiel and Ehlers, 2009; Nelson, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arenkiel and Ehlers, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Bell et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Indicators
AbbreviationEcol. Indic.
ISSN (print)1470-160X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Decision Sciences

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