How to format your references using the Emu - Austral Ornithology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emu - Austral Ornithology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kauranen M (2013). Physics. Freeing nonlinear optics from phase matching. Science (New York, N.Y.) 342, 1182–1183.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li W, Walz JY (2014). Porous nanocomposites with integrated internal domains: application to separation membranes. Scientific reports 4, 4418.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mitchell MW, Lundeen JS, Steinberg AM (2004). Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state. Nature 429, 161–164.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ni X, Wu Y, Chen Z-G, Zheng L-Y, Xu Y-L, Nayar P, Liu X-P, Lu M-H, Chen Y-F (2014). Acoustic rainbow trapping by coiling up space. Scientific reports 4, 7038.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bain BJ, Wild BJ, Stephens AD, Phelan LA (2010). ‘Variant Haemoglobins’. (Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK)
An edited book
Lin Z (2011). ‘Probability Inequalities’ Ed Z Bai. (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg)
A chapter in an edited book
Sharma A, Srivastava J, Kumar A (2015). A Comprehensive Overview of Renewable Energy Status in India. In ‘Environmental Sustainability: Role of Green Technologies’. (Eds P Thangavel, G Sridevi.) pp. 91–105. (Springer India: New Delhi)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emu - Austral Ornithology.

Blog post
Fang J (2014). Watch What Happens When You Stick Your Hand Into ‘Hot Ice’. IFLScience. Available at: [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Commercial Motor Vehicles: Significant Actions Remain to Improve Truck Safety. T-RCED-00-102. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brookman D (2009). Establishing context for referents in online chatroom conversations. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2006). Abortion Opponents Win Dispute. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kauranen 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kauranen 2013; Li and Walz 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Walz 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ni et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmu - Austral Ornithology
ISSN (print)0158-4197
ISSN (online)1448-5540
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles