How to format your references using the Emu - Austral Ornithology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emu - Austral Ornithology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neumann K (2003). Anthropology. New Guinea: a cradle of agriculture. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301, 180–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Curtis TP, Sloan WT (2005). Microbiology. Exploring microbial diversity--a vast below. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309, 1331–1333.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang X-L, Liu L-F, Liu W-M (2013). Quantum anomalous Hall effect and tunable topological states in 3d transition metals doped silicene. Scientific reports 3, 2908.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Masgrau L, Roujeinikova A, Johannissen LO, Hothi P, Basran J, Ranaghan KE, Mulholland AJ, Sutcliffe MJ, Scrutton NS, Leys D (2006). Atomic description of an enzyme reaction dominated by proton tunneling. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312, 237–241.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Foote M, Hillier J, Mitchell-Wallace K, Jones M (2017). ‘Natural catastrophe risk management and modelling’. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Oxford, UK)
An edited book
Kumar BM, Nair PKR (Eds.) (2011). ‘Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Systems: Opportunities and Challenges’. (Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht)
A chapter in an edited book
Gautschi H, Gautschi D (2016). How Did We Get to Here? The Role of the State in Fostering Context. In ‘Technological Innovation and Economic Transformation: A Method for Contextual Analysis’. (Ed D Gautschi.) pp. 77–119. (Palgrave Macmillan US: New York, NY)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emu - Austral Ornithology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016). Dramatic Increase In Earth’s Oxidation Levels 2.33 Billion Years Ago. IFLScience. Available at: [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994). Amtrak: Deteriorated Financial Condition and Costly Future Challenges. T-RCED-94-145. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kapatsinski V (2009). The architecture of grammar in artificial grammar learning: Formal biases in the acquisition of morphophonology and the nature of the learning task. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Becker JO, Goldman A, Apuzzo M (2017). Emails Disclose Trump Son’s Glee at Russian Offer. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Neumann 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Neumann 2003; Curtis and Sloan 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Curtis and Sloan 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Masgrau et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmu - Austral Ornithology
ISSN (print)0158-4197
ISSN (online)1448-5540
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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