How to format your references using the Emu - Austral Ornithology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emu - Austral Ornithology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Valente TW (2012). Network interventions. Science (New York, N.Y.) 337, 49–53.
A journal article with 2 authors
Melville WK, Matusov P (2002). Distribution of breaking waves at the ocean surface. Nature 417, 58–63.
A journal article with 3 authors
Logvenov G, Gozar A, Bozovic I (2009). High-temperature superconductivity in a single copper-oxygen plane. Science (New York, N.Y.) 326, 699–702.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lavé J, Yule D, Sapkota S, Basant K, Madden C, Attal M, Pandey R (2005). Evidence for a great medieval earthquake (~1100 A.D.) in the central Himalayas, Nepal. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307, 1302–1305.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Popescu D, Gharbi A, Stefanoiu D, Borne P (2017). ‘Process Control Design for Industrial Applications’. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ)
An edited book
Nguyen NT, Katarzyniak RP, Janiak A (Eds.) (2009). ‘New Challenges in Computational Collective Intelligence’. (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg)
A chapter in an edited book
Belaïd A, Ouwayed N (2012). Segmentation of Ancient Arabic Documents. In ‘Guide to OCR for Arabic Scripts’. (Eds V Märgner, H El Abed.) pp. 103–122. (Springer: London)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emu - Austral Ornithology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015). Scientists At Work: Tracing The Origin Of Ancient Water Flows On Mars In the Lab. IFLScience. Available at: [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977). GAO and Federal Government ADP Procurement. No. 102638. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kasun KK (2010). Economic effectiveness of physician organizational models in a California integrated healthcare system. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2011). Winning Teams Linked With Declining Grades. New York Times, B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Valente 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Melville and Matusov 2002; Valente 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Melville and Matusov 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Lavé et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmu - Austral Ornithology
ISSN (print)0158-4197
ISSN (online)1448-5540
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles