How to format your references using the Emu - Austral Ornithology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emu - Austral Ornithology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perkel, J. M. (2015). Lab-inventory management: Time to take stock. Nature 524, 125–126.
A journal article with 2 authors
Song, G., and Zhang, W. (2014). First-principles study on the phase diagram and multiferroic properties of (SrCoO3)1/(SrTiO3)1 superlattices. Scientific reports 4, 4564.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lehmann, S., Jackson, A. D., and Lautrup, B. E. (2006). Measures for measures. Nature 444, 1003–1004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smith, R. J., Veríssimo, D., Leader-Williams, N., Cowling, R. M., and Knight, A. T. (2009). Let the locals lead. Nature 462, 280–281.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khanlari, R., and Fard, M. S. (2015). ‘FIDIC Plant and Design-Build Form of Contract Illustrated’. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK.)
An edited book
Hesselman, C., and Giannelli, C. (Eds.) (2009). ‘Mobile Wireless Middleware, Operating Systems, and Applications - Workshops: Mobilware 2009 Workshops, Berlin, Germany, April 2009, Revised Selected Papers’. (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.)
A chapter in an edited book
Kawsar, F., Vermeulen, J., Smith, K., Luyten, K., and Kortuem, G. (2011). Exploring the Design Space for Situated Glyphs to Support Dynamic Work Environments. In ‘Pervasive Computing: 9th International Conference, Pervasive 2011, San Francisco, USA, June 12-15, 2011. Proceedings’. (Eds K. Lyons, J. Hightower, and E. M. Huang.) Lecture Notes in Computer Science. pp. 70–78. (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emu - Austral Ornithology.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016). Like A Fish Out Of Water: Fish May Have Emerged Onto Land More Than 30 Times. IFLScience. Available at: [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010). Higher Education: Stronger Federal Oversight Needed to Enforce Ban on Incentive Payments to School Recruiters. GAO-11-10. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bilbrey, J. (2017). The Positive Effects Extrinsic Motivation Can Have on Intrinsic Motivation in a Math Classroom. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., and Belson, K. (2013). Seau Had Brain Disease Found in Other Ex-Players. New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Perkel 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Song and Zhang 2014; Perkel 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Song and Zhang 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmu - Austral Ornithology
ISSN (print)0158-4197
ISSN (online)1448-5540
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles