How to format your references using the Emu - Austral Ornithology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emu - Austral Ornithology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Masocha, W. (2014). Paclitaxel-induced hyposensitivity to nociceptive chemical stimulation in mice can be prevented by treatment with minocycline. Scientific reports 4, 6719.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gorostiza, P., and Isacoff, E. Y. (2008). Optical switches for remote and noninvasive control of cell signaling. Science (New York, N.Y.) 322, 395–399.
A journal article with 3 authors
James, A., Pitchford, J. W., and Plank, M. J. (2013). James et al. reply. Nature 500, E2-3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nussey, D. H., Postma, E., Gienapp, P., and Visser, M. E. (2005). Selection on heritable phenotypic plasticity in a wild bird population. Science (New York, N.Y.) 310, 304–306.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baldwin, C. J. (2015). ‘The 10 Principles of Food Industry Sustainability’. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK.)
An edited book
Arnold, V. I. (2014). ‘Vladimir I. Arnold - Collected Works: Hydrodynamics, Bifurcation Theory, and Algebraic Geometry 1965-1972’ Eds A. B. Givental, B. A. Khesin, A. N. Varchenko, V. A. Vassiliev, and O. Y. Viro. (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.)
A chapter in an edited book
Magnier, S. (2015). Suspensive Condition and Dynamic Epistemic Logic: A Leibnizian Survey. In ‘Past and Present Interactions in Legal Reasoning and Logic’. (Eds M. Armgardt, P. Canivez, and S. Chassagnard-Pinet.) Logic, Argumentation & Reasoning. pp. 71–94. (Springer International Publishing: Cham.)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emu - Austral Ornithology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Oldest Human-Like Hand Bone May Help Us Understand The Evolution Of Tool Making. IFLScience. Available at: [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994). GSEs: Implications of Removing State and Local Tax Exemption. T-GGD-94-182. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chamberlin, A. A. (2015). Academic-related factors and emotional eating in adolescents. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2008). Rebate Checks to Lose Their Punch This Year. New York Times, LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Masocha 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gorostiza and Isacoff 2008; Masocha 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gorostiza and Isacoff 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Nussey et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmu - Austral Ornithology
ISSN (print)0158-4197
ISSN (online)1448-5540
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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