How to format your references using the Research in Engineering Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Engineering Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gibson JM (2012) Materials science. Solving amorphous structures--two pairs beat one. Science 335:929–930
A journal article with 2 authors
Shirey PD, Lamberti GA (2011) Regulate trade in rare plants. Nature 469:465–467
A journal article with 3 authors
Fashami MS, Atulasimha J, Bandyopadhyay S (2013) Energy dissipation and error probability in fault-tolerant binary switching. Sci Rep 3:3204
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Boggon TJ, Murray J, Chappuis-Flament S, et al (2002) C-cadherin ectodomain structure and implications for cell adhesion mechanisms. Science 296:1308–1313

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Negre E (2015) Information and Recommender Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
van de Heetkamp A (2011) Origin Management: Rules of Origin in Free Trade Agreements. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Eades A, Deal A, Bhattacharyya A, Hooghan T (2009) Energy Filtering in EBSD. In: Schwartz AJ, Kumar M, Adams BL, Field DP (eds) Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Materials Science. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 53–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Engineering Design.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Facial Expressions Don’t Have Universal Meanings. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Energy and Science Reports and Testimony: 1992. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deise EC (2008) Frame problems, Fodor’s challenge, and practical reason. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kleinfield NR, Oppel RA Jr, Eddy M (2016) Moment in Convention Glare Stirs Parents’ American Life. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gibson 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Shirey and Lamberti 2011; Gibson 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shirey and Lamberti 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Boggon et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Engineering Design
AbbreviationRes. Eng. Des.
ISSN (print)0934-9839
ISSN (online)1435-6066
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Other styles