How to format your references using the Anaesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Anaesthesia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Sincell M. PLANETARY SCIENCE: Newfound Worlds Hint at Hard-Knock Life. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2000; 289: 1125.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kuwayama H, Ishida S. Biological soliton in multicellular movement. Scientific reports 2013; 3: 2272.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hansell DA, Kadko D, Bates NR. Degradation of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon in the western Arctic Ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2004; 304: 858–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Eshraghi A, Osman NAA, Gholizadeh H, Ahmadian J, Rahmati B, Abas WABW. Development and evaluation of new coupling system for lower limb prostheses with acoustic alarm system. Scientific reports 2013; 3: 2270.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. MacIsaac B, Langton R. Gas Turbine Propulsion Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2011.
An edited book
1. Muneesawang P. Multimedia Database Retrieval: Technology and Applications. Zhang N, Guan L, eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Castro PF, Kulicki P. Deontic Logics Based on Boolean Algebra. In: Trypuz R, ed. Krister Segerberg on Logic of Actions. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014: 85–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Anaesthesia.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. How To Get Off The Couch And Into Exercise. IFLScience, 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. More Competition Needed in the Federal Procurement of Automatic Data Processing Equipment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Reig MA. Cross-Dialectal Variability in Propositional Anaphora: A Quantitative and Pragmatic Study of Null Objects in Mexican and Peninsular Spanish. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. Life on the Precipice in Puerto Rico. New York Times, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnaesthesia
ISSN (print)0003-2409
ISSN (online)1365-2044
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Other styles