How to format your references using the Anaesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Anaesthesia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Toulouse G. Community groups could show Unesco the way. Nature 2000; 405: 394.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ciufolini I, Pavlis EC. A confirmation of the general relativistic prediction of the Lense-Thirring effect. Nature 2004; 431: 958–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ruby JG, Jan CH, Bartel DP. Intronic microRNA precursors that bypass Drosha processing. Nature 2007; 448: 83–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gittenberger E, Groenenberg DSJ, Kokshoorn B, Preece RC. Biogeography: molecular trails from hitch-hiking snails. Nature 2006; 439: 409.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Maidl B, Herrenknecht M, Maidl U, Wehrmeyer G. Mechanised Shield Tunnelling. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2012.
An edited book
1. Haile-Selassie Y, Su DF, eds. The Postcranial Anatomy of Australopithecus Afarensis: New Insights from KSD-VP-1/1, 1st ed. 2016. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Callisto M, Gonçalves JF, Ligeiro R. Water Resources in the Rupestrian Grasslands of the Espinhaço Mountains. In: Fernandes GW, ed. Ecology and Conservation of Mountaintop Grasslands in Brazil. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016: 87–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Anaesthesia.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. How Did Neanderthals’ Ear Get to China? IFLScience, 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: TSA Should Take Additional Action to Obtain Stakeholder Input When Modifying the Prohibited Items List. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Glazer K. Imagining a constructionist game-based pedagogical model: Using tabletop role-playing game creation to enhance literature education in high school English classes. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Stelter B. Waking Up On The Wrong Side Of A Rating War. New York Times, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnaesthesia
ISSN (print)0003-2409
ISSN (online)1365-2044
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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