How to format your references using the Anaesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Anaesthesia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Corma A. Materials chemistry: Catalysts made thinner. Nature 2009; 461: 182–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wen L, Tang F. Computational biology: How to catch rare cell types. Nature 2015; 525: 197–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Dietl GP, Herbert GS, Vermeij GJ. Reduced competition and altered feeding behavior among marine snails after a mass extinction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2004; 306: 2229–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Guo Y, Zhou L, Xu L, Zhou X, Hu J, Pei R. Multiple types of logic gates based on a single G-quadruplex DNA strand. Scientific reports 2014; 4: 7315.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sofronas A. Case Histories in Vibration Analysis and Metal Fatigue for the Practicing Engineer. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
1. Deutsch JS, ed. Hox Genes: Studies from the 20th to the 21st Century. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gjedrem T, Baranski M. The Theoretical Basis for Breeding and Selection. In: Baranski M, ed. Selective Breeding in Aquaculture: An Introduction. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2009: 25–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Anaesthesia.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Watch A Man Freefall 25,000 Feet With No Parachute. IFLScience, 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Better Management Needed in Civil Agencies Over Selection of In-House or Contract Performance of Support Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Prejean KD. An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in Texas Public Schools: Race, School District Size, Academic Performance, and Policy Influences. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Koblin J. Request to Alter Opening Ceremony Collides With Tradition. New York Times, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnaesthesia
ISSN (print)0003-2409
ISSN (online)1365-2044
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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