How to format your references using the Anaesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Anaesthesia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mazur E. Education. Farewell, lecture? Science (New York, N.Y.) 2009; 323: 50–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. von Messling V, Cattaneo R. Virology. A henipavirus vaccine in sight. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2012; 337: 651–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Flores I, Cayuela ML, Blasco MA. Effects of telomerase and telomere length on epidermal stem cell behavior. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2005; 309: 1253–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Habicht KS, Gade M, Thamdrup B, Berg P, Canfield DE. Calibration of sulfate levels in the archean ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2002; 298: 2372–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Moritz FG. Electromechanical Motion Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2013.
An edited book
1. Barua R, Lange T, eds. Progress in Cryptology - INDOCRYPT 2006: 7th International Conference on Cryptology in India, Kolkata, India, December 11-13, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chaves IDG, López JRG, Zapata JLG, Robayo AL, Niño GR. Chemical Reactors. In: López JRG, García Zapata JL, Leguizamón Robayo A, Rodríguez Niño G, eds. Process Analysis and Simulation in Chemical Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016: 195–240.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Anaesthesia.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Why Are Some People Selfish? IFLScience, 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Railroad Administration: Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing Program--Revisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Klimek DL. Antigone’s reach: A feminine model for today’s businesswoman. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Marx L. Amanda Pekoe and Christopher Lueck. New York Times, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnaesthesia
ISSN (print)0003-2409
ISSN (online)1365-2044
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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