How to format your references using the Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rochaix, J.-D. (2013). Plant science. Fine-tuning photosynthesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6154), 50–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gubin, M. M., & Schreiber, R. D. (2015). CANCER. The odds of immunotherapy success. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6257), 158–159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schön, J. H., Kloc, C., & Batlogg, B. (2001). High-temperature superconductivity in lattice-expanded C60. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5539), 2432–2434.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Molinari, M., Calanca, V., Galli, C., Lucca, P., & Paganetti, P. (2003). Role of EDEM in the release of misfolded glycoproteins from the calnexin cycle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5611), 1397–1400.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Armstrong, H. A., & Brasier, M. D. (2004). Microfossils. Malden, MA USA: Blackwell Publishing.
An edited book
Malevergne, Y. (2006). Extreme Financial Risks: From Dependence to Risk Management. (D. Sornette, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Han, Y.-S., Ko, S.-K., & Salomaa, K. (2014). State Complexity of Deletion. In A. M. Shur & M. V. Volkov (Eds.), Developments in Language Theory: 18th International Conference, DLT 2014, Ekaterinburg, Russia, August 26-29, 2014. Proceedings (pp. 37–48). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 10). Frances Kelsey, Doctor Who Saved The U.S. From Thalidomide, Dies At 101. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Surface Transportation: Issues Related to Preserving Inactive Rail Lines as Trails (No. RCED-00-4). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eaglin, M. (2012). A secondary data analysis of Latino families who successfully terminated with family preservation (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2007, September 16). Order at the Court. New York Times, p. 14NJ19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rochaix 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Gubin and Schreiber 2015; Rochaix 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gubin and Schreiber 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Molinari et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning
ISSN (online)1793-7078

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