How to format your references using the Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Patel, A. D. (2008). Science & music: talk of the tone. Nature, 453(7196), 726–727.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor, A. F., & Smith, G. R. (2003). RecBCD enzyme is a DNA helicase with fast and slow motors of opposite polarity. Nature, 423(6942), 889–893.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rawson, F. J., Downard, A. J., & Baronian, K. H. (2014). Electrochemical detection of intracellular and cell membrane redox systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Scientific reports, 4, 5216.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kang, H. J., Kawasawa, Y. I., Cheng, F., Zhu, Y., Xu, X., Li, M., et al. (2011). Spatio-temporal transcriptome of the human brain. Nature, 478(7370), 483–489.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phillips, J. J., Phillips, P., & Pulliam, A. (2014). Measuring ROI in Environment, Health, and Safety. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lee, Y. P. (2016). Metamaterials for Perfect Absorption. (J. Y. Rhee, Y. J. Yoo, & K. W. Kim, Eds.) (Vol. 236). Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Patel, S. K. S., Kumar, P., Singh, M., Lee, J.-K., & Kalia, V. C. (2015). Integrative Approach for Biohydrogen and Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production. In V. C. Kalia (Ed.), Microbial Factories: Biofuels, Waste treatment: Volume 1 (pp. 73–85). New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, May 4). The Mountain From “Game of Thrones” Reveals What He Has To Eat To Maintain His Mass. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). The Stafford Student Loan Program (No. T-HRD-90-13). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liu, T.-W. D. (2003). Isolation and Characterization of pco-1, which Encodes a Regulatory Protein that Controls Purine Degradation in Neurospora crassa (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2017, May 5). Rangers Even Series With Emphatic Win as Lindberg Scores Twice. New York Times, p. B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Patel 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Patel 2008; Taylor and Smith 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Taylor and Smith 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Kang et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning
ISSN (online)1793-7078

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