How to format your references using the Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schröder, R. (2003). The genes orthodenticle and hunchback substitute for bicoid in the beetle Tribolium. Nature, 422(6932), 621–625.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yeomans, D. K., & Veverka, J. (2004). Obituary: Fred Lawrence Whipple (1906-2004). Nature, 432(7013), 31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eilken, H. M., Nishikawa, S.-I., & Schroeder, T. (2009). Continuous single-cell imaging of blood generation from haemogenic endothelium. Nature, 457(7231), 896–900.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Reed, E. J., Soljacic, M., Ibanescu, M., & Joannopoulos, J. D. (2004). Comment on “Observation of the inverse Doppler effect.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5685), 778; author reply 778.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Utsuro, M., & Ignatovich, V. K. (2010). Handbook of Neutron Optics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Seki, S. (2015). High-Energy Charged Particles: Their Chemistry and Use as Versatile Tools for Nanofabrication. (T. Sakurai, M. Omichi, A. Saeki, & D. Sakamaki, Eds.). Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Zucker, K. J. (2015). The DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Gender Dysphoria. In C. Trombetta, G. Liguori, & M. Bertolotto (Eds.), Management of Gender Dysphoria: A Multidisciplinary Approach (pp. 33–37). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, June 2). Tea Consumption Might Alter Gene Expression In Women, But Not Men. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Indian Affairs: Further Actions on GAO Recommendations Needed to Address Systemic Management Challenges with Indian Education (No. GAO-15-597T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aldaco, R. (2010). Latinas attainment of higher education: What factors contribute to their success? (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L. (2017, April 3). Lessons and Interpretations on the Court Nomination Process. New York Times, p. A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schröder 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Schröder 2003; Yeomans and Veverka 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yeomans and Veverka 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Reed et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning
ISSN (online)1793-7078

Other styles