How to format your references using the Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lok, C. (2001). Smithsonian head ruffled by inquiry. Nature, 412(6844), 257.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sothmann, B., & Flindt, C. (2013). Physics. Quantized electronic heat flow. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6158), 569–570.
A journal article with 3 authors
MacAlister, C. A., Ohashi-Ito, K., & Bergmann, D. C. (2007). Transcription factor control of asymmetric cell divisions that establish the stomatal lineage. Nature, 445(7127), 537–540.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Prudhomme, M., Attaiech, L., Sanchez, G., Martin, B., & Claverys, J.-P. (2006). Antibiotic stress induces genetic transformability in the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5783), 89–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rios Insua, D., Ruggeri, F., & Wiper, M. P. (2012). Bayesian Analysis of Stochastic Process Models: Ruggeri/Bayesian Analysis of Stochastic Process Models. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lajtha, A., & Banik, N. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology: Neural Protein Metabolism and Function. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Al-Mubarak, L., Cotton, C., & Friedlander, S. F. (2016). Fungal Infections in the Pediatric Age Group. In M. Hogeling (Ed.), Case-Based Inpatient Pediatric Dermatology (pp. 53–67). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, March 20). What Are The Signs Of Biased Science Papers? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Space Station: Delays in Dealing With Space Debris May Reduce Safety and Increase Costs (No. IMTEC-92-50). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tegtmeier, T. (2009). Science-related attitudes of urban middle school students (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2010, August 18). Pension Fraud By New Jersey Cited by S.E.C. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lok 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Lok 2001; Sothmann and Flindt 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sothmann and Flindt 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Prudhomme et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning
ISSN (online)1793-7078

Other styles