How to format your references using the Religions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Religions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler, A. In Search of Green Arabia. Science 2014, 345, 994–997.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pryke, S.R.; Griffith, S.C. Genetic Incompatibility Drives Sex Allocation and Maternal Investment in a Polymorphic Finch. Science 2009, 323, 1605–1607.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hori, S.; Nomura, T.; Sakaguchi, S. Control of Regulatory T Cell Development by the Transcription Factor Foxp3. Science 2003, 299, 1057–1061.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Villunger, A.; Michalak, E.M.; Coultas, L.; Müllauer, F.; Böck, G.; Ausserlechner, M.J.; Adams, J.M.; Strasser, A. P53- and Drug-Induced Apoptotic Responses Mediated by BH3-Only Proteins Puma and Noxa. Science 2003, 302, 1036–1038.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Young, S.; Smith, J. Helping Children with ADHD; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2017; ISBN 9781118903155.
An edited book
Zhang, M. Android Application Security: A Semantics and Context-Aware Approach; Yin, H., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319478111.
A chapter in an edited book
Heendaliya, L.; Lin, D.; Hurson, A. Predictive Line Queries for Traffic Prediction. In Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems VI: Special Issue on Database- and Expert-Systems Applications; Hameurlain, A., Küng, J., Wagner, R., Liddle, S.W., Schewe, K.-D., Zhou, X., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 106–133 ISBN 9783642341786.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Religions.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. Life Might Jump Between Planets In The TRAPPIST-1 System Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Educational Assistance for Institutionalized Neglected or Delinquent Children; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1977;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al-Alawadhi, F. Oral History of Women Educators in Kuwait: A Comparative Model of Care Ethics Between Noddings and Al-Ghazali. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati: Cincinnati, OH, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M. An Unconventional Witness. New York Times 2017, A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleReligions
AbbreviationReligions (Basel)
ISSN (online)2077-1444

Other styles