How to format your references using the Cardiovascular Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiovascular Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Landis GA. Avatars in space. Nature 2000;403:833.
A journal article with 2 authors
Soubeyrand B, Plotkin SA. Microbial evolution: antitoxin vaccines and pathogen virulence. Nature 2002;417:609–610; discussion 610.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sobolev AV, Hofmann AW, Nikogosian IK. Recycled oceanic crust observed in ‘ghost plagioclase’ within the source of Mauna Loa lavas. Nature 2000;404:986–990.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
Burt RK, Abinun M, Farge-Bancel D, Fassas A, Hiepe F, Havrdová E, Ikehara S, Loh Y, Marmont du Haut Champ A, Voltarelli JC, Snowden J, Slavin S. Risks of immune system treatments. Science 2010;328:825–826.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dowrick DJ. Earthquake Risk Reduction. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Wei R, ed. Mobile Media, Political Participation, and Civic Activism in Asia: Private Chat to Public Communication. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Schlüter RG, Norrild J. Enotourism in Argentina: The Power of Wine to Promote a Region. In: Panosso Netto A, Trigo LGG, eds. Tourism in Latin America: Cases of Success. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p71–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiovascular Research.

Blog post
Fang J. Binge Drinking Affects Your Immune System Immediately. IFLScience. (30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Automatic Data Processing: A Career Challenge

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Damiano ES. The effects of psychological stress on physical health over time

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Home Runs And Demons For Hamilton And Mantle. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiovascular Research
AbbreviationCardiovasc. Res.
ISSN (print)0008-6363
ISSN (online)1755-3245
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles