How to format your references using the Cardiovascular Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiovascular Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Favero I. Optomechanics: Listening to quantum grains of sound. Nature 2015;520:441–442.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kind R, Yuan X. Geophysics. Seismic images of the biggest crash on Earth. Science 2010;329:1479–1480.
A journal article with 3 authors
Soares L, Parisi M, Bonini NM. Axon injury and regeneration in the adult Drosophila. Sci Rep 2014;4:6199.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
Lorenz IC, Marcotrigiano J, Dentzer TG, Rice CM. Structure of the catalytic domain of the hepatitis C virus NS2-3 protease. Nature 2006;442:831–835.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Poltorak AI, Lerner PJ. Essentials of Intellectual Property. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Schultz IZ, Rogers ES, eds. Work Accommodation and Retention in Mental Health. 1st ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Vetter TR. Assessment Tools in Pediatric Chronic Pain: Reliability and Validity. In: McClain BC, Suresh S, eds. Handbook of Pediatric Chronic Pain: Current Science and Integrative Practice New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 63–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiovascular Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Alcohol Guidelines Ignore How People Drink – That’s Why They’re Not Heeded. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015. (30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Government Financial Vulnerability: 14 Areas Needing Special Review. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Jan. Report No.: OCG-90-1.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Payne NA. Adults who have learning disabilities: Transition from GED to postsecondary activities [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Express Skepticism in a Discrimination Case. New York Times 2007;A26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiovascular Research
AbbreviationCardiovasc. Res.
ISSN (print)0008-6363
ISSN (online)1755-3245
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles