How to format your references using the Cardiovascular Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiovascular Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Chang FR. Computer science. Is your computer secure? Science 2009;325:550–551.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Parsons J, Wand Y. A question of class. Nature 2008;455:1040–1041.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Patt AG, Ogallo L, Hellmuth M. Sustainability. Learning from 10 years of climate outlook forums in Africa. Science 2007;318:49–50.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
1.
Schöck F, Reischl J, Wimmer E, Taubert H, Purnell BA, Jäckle H. Phenotypic suppression of empty spiracles is prevented by buttonhead. Nature 2000;405:351–354.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Hao L, Lawrence J. Laser Surface Treatment of Bio-Implant Materials. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1.
Ferner RE. Neurofibromatoses in Clinical Practice. Huson SM, Evans DGR, eds. London: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Gillispie CC, Pisano R. The Carnot Approach and the Mechanics of Work and Power, 1803–1829. In: Pisano R, ed. Lazare and Sadi Carnot: A Scientific and Filial Relationship Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 87–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiovascular Research.

Blog post
1.
Hale T. Girls Are Put Off Science Because STEM Toys Are Branded As Boy’s Toys, Research Says. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/girls-are-put-off-science-because-stem-toys-are-branded-as-boys-toys-research-says/ (30 October 2018)

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Communications Policy: Issues for the 1990s. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Sep. Report No.: IMTEC-91-52B.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
White J. Support group for family caregivers of Alzheimer’s patients: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Saslow L. A Law School Graduates From Junior High. New York Times 2007;LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiovascular Research
AbbreviationCardiovasc. Res.
ISSN (print)0008-6363
ISSN (online)1755-3245
ScopePhysiology
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles