How to format your references using the Rare Metals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rare Metals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Petherick A. Chagas disease in the Chaco. Nature. 2010;465:S18-20.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Müller F-J, Loring JF. Network biology: A compass for stem-cell differentiation. Nature. 2014;513:498–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Yang Y, Dong Y, Chawla NV. Predicting node degree centrality with the node prominence profile. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7236.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yamasaki M, Li W, Johnson DJD, Huntington JA. Crystal structure of a stable dimer reveals the molecular basis of serpin polymerization. Nature. 2008;455:1255–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kovalev VA. Solutions in Lidar Profiling of the Atmosphere. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Haines AJ. Enhanced Surface Imaging of Crustal Deformation: Obtaining Tectonic Force Fields Using GPS Data. 1st ed. 2015. Dimitrova LL, Wallace LM, Williams CA, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Karim R, Parida A, Candell O, Kumar U. eMaintenance Industrial Applications: Issues and Challenges. In: Lee J, Ni J, Sarangapani J, Mathew J, editors. Engineering Asset Management 2011: Proceedings of the Sixth World Congress on Engineering Asset Management. London: Springer; 2014. p. 33–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rare Metals.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Paleo Diet? Science Has Moved On Since The Stone Age [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Natural Gas Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Benefits Public Safety, but Consistency of Performance Measures Should be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Sep. Report No.: GAO-06-946.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Obi CN. Evaluation of feeding varying levels of digestible lysine on broiler breeder male reproductive characteristics and body weight changes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Leland J. Starring in Someone Else’s Film. New York Times. 2016 Aug 19;MB4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRare Metals
AbbreviationRare Metals
ISSN (print)1001-0521
ISSN (online)1867-7185
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles