How to format your references using the Rare Metals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rare Metals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Asphaug E. Planetary science. The shifting sands of asteroids. Science. 2007;316:993–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Janssen C, Marcus RA. Does symmetry drive isotopic anomalies in ozone isotopomer formation? Science. 2001;294:951.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Faller M, Niederweis M, Schulz GE. The structure of a mycobacterial outer-membrane channel. Science. 2004;303:1189–92.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Luo M, Li Z-Z, Li Y-Y, Chen L-Z, Yan S-P, Chen P, et al. Relationship between red cell distribution width and serum uric acid in patients with untreated essential hypertension. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7291.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Baguley D, Andersson G, McFerran D, McKenna L. Tinnitus: A Multidisciplinary Approach. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Liu H, Kubota N, Zhu X, Dillmann R, Zhou D, editors. Intelligent Robotics and Applications: 8th International Conference, ICIRA 2015, Portsmouth, UK, August 24-27, 2015, Proceedings, Part III. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Balamohan B, Flocchini P, Miri A, Santoro N. Time Optimal Algorithms for Black Hole Search in Rings. In: Wu W, Daescu O, editors. Combinatorial Optimization and Applications: 4th International Conference, COCOA 2010, Kailua-Kona, HI, USA, December 18-20, 2010, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 58–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rare Metals.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Trilobites Migrated Across The Ocean Floor In Single File [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Status of Farmers Home Administration Efforts To Install Office Automation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Oct. Report No.: IMTEC-86-1BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Schroder GL. A quantitative study of critical thinking skills in bachelors of science nursing program students [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Klein JZ, Pilon M. Long Goodbye: Contracts That Keep On Giving. New York Times. 2013 Jul 3;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRare Metals
AbbreviationRare Metals
ISSN (print)1001-0521
ISSN (online)1867-7185
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Condensed Matter Physics

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