How to format your references using the Rare Metals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rare Metals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wetherbee R. Biomineralization. The diatom glasshouse. Science. 2002;298:547.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Webby RJ, Webster RG. Are we ready for pandemic influenza? Science. 2003;302:1519–22.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ta VD, Chen R, Sun HD. Tuning whispering gallery mode lasing from self-assembled polymer droplets. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1362.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. O’Neal KR, Brinzari TV, Wright JB, Ma C, Giri S, Schlueter JA, et al. Pressure-induced magnetic crossover driven by hydrogen bonding in CuF₂(H₂O)₂(3-chloropyridine). Sci Rep. 2014;4:6054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Soustelle M. Ionic and Electrochemical Equilibria. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Craiger P, Shenoi S, editors. Advances in Digital Forensics III: IFIP International Conference on Digital Forensics, National Centre for Forensic Science, Orlando, Florida, January 28-January 31, 2007. 1st ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Crespi Reghizzi S, Breveglieri L, Morzenti A. Translation Semantics and Static Analysis. In: Breveglieri L, Morzenti A, editors. Formal Languages and Compilation. London: Springer; 2013. p. 293–387.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rare Metals.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. What Would Happen If The Earth Were Flat? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Feasibility of Requiring Financial Assurances for the Recall or Destruction of Unsafe Consumer Products. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Apr. Report No.: GAO-09-512R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Grace J. A Correlational Study of the Relationship Between TEAS V and Success in Licensed Practical Nursing Students [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly D. The A List. New York Times. 2001 Feb 4;713.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRare Metals
AbbreviationRare Metals
ISSN (print)1001-0521
ISSN (online)1867-7185
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles