How to format your references using the Rare Metals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rare Metals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Simons BD. Development. Getting your gut into shape. Science. 2013;342:203–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Song T-RA, Simons M. Large trench-parallel gravity variations predict seismogenic behavior in subduction zones. Science. 2003;301:630–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Levine B, Mizushima N, Virgin HW. Autophagy in immunity and inflammation. Nature. 2011;469:323–35.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Akashi K, Traver D, Miyamoto T, Weissman IL. A clonogenic common myeloid progenitor that gives rise to all myeloid lineages. Nature. 2000;404:193–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. List of MAK and BAT Values 2014. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2014.
An edited book
1. Terry JP. Reef-Platform Coral Boulders: Evidence for High-Energy Marine Inundation Events on Tropical Coastlines. Lau AYA, Etienne S, editors. Singapore: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Wang F, Gao Y, Zhang F. Research on Trajectory Tracking Strategy of Roadheader Cutting Head Using ILC. In: Jia Y, Du J, Li H, Zhang W, editors. Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference: Volume 2. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016. p. 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rare Metals.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Prospects Revived For Life Around Low-Mass Stars. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The Rise of Political Science. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Jan. Report No.: 137895.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lee M. A graphic design curriculum development project [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Barron J. A Solution to Subway Delays Caused by Crowding? More Standing Room. New York Times. 2017 Oct 17;A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRare Metals
AbbreviationRare Metals
ISSN (print)1001-0521
ISSN (online)1867-7185
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles