How to format your references using the Rare Metals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rare Metals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Heimann M. Obituary: Charles David Keeling 1928-2005. Nature. 2005;437:331.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Guzman J, Stern S. Innovation economics. Where is Silicon Valley? Science. 2015;347:606–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kahn SE, Hull RL, Utzschneider KM. Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2006;444:840–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Qi J, Asano T, Jinno M, Matsui K, Atsumi K, Sakagami Y, et al. Characterization of a Phytophthora mating hormone. Science. 2005;309:1828.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bartley T. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Cancer. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1. Gnedin NY. Star Formation in Galaxy Evolution: Connecting Numerical Models to Reality: Saas-Fee Advanced Course 43. Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. 1st ed. 2016. Glover SCO, Klessen RS, Springel V, Revaz Y, Jablonka P, Teyssier R, et al., editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kim V, Kato K, Kim KC, Lillehoj EP. Role of Epithelial Cells in Chronic Inflammatory Lung Disease. In: Rogers TJ, Criner GJ, Cornwell WD, editors. Smoking and Lung Inflammation: Basic, Pre-Clinical and Clinical Research Advances. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 81–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rare Metals.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. How Do Parasitic Birds Learn To Be Like Their Biological Parents? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Broadcasting Board of Governors: Additional Steps Needed to Address Overlap in International Broadcasting. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Jan. Report No.: GAO-13-172.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ponti CM. The musical representation of Asian characters in the musicals of Richard Rodgers [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. Writers Are Halted Mid-Sentence as a Y Cancels Classes. New York Times. 2001 May 13;147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRare Metals
AbbreviationRare Metals
ISSN (print)1001-0521
ISSN (online)1867-7185
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles