How to format your references using the Radiology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Radiology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker PA. Paleoclimate. Trans-Atlantic climate connections. Science 2002;296:67–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marcus A, Oransky I. Science publishing: The paper is not sacred. Nature 2011;480:449–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barthelemy P, Bertolotti J, Wiersma DS. A Lévy flight for light. Nature 2008;453:495–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lambert DM, Ritchie PA, Millar CD, Holland B, Drummond AJ, Baroni C. Rates of evolution in ancient DNA from Adélie penguins. Science 2002;295:2270–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marcus Y. Supercritical Water. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Markopoulos P, Ruyter B de, IJsselsteijn W, Rowland D, editors. Fun and Games: Second International Conference, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, October 20-21, 2008. Proceedings. vol. 5294. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Falke S, Kapur D. Inductive Decidability Using Implicit Induction. In: Hermann M, Voronkov A, editors. Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning: 13th International Conference, LPAR 2006, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, November 13-17, 2006. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006, p. 45–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Radiology Case Reports.

Blog post
Davis J. E-Cigarettes “Around 95% Less Harmful” Than Regular Smoking. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle: Incomplete Data and Funding Approach Increase Cost Risk for Upgrade Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tubbs MA. The use of hand-constructed graphs in Microcomputer-Based Laboratories for kinematics instruction. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kaplan T, Pilon M. Attorney General Turns Focus to New York’s Pets. New York Times 2013:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRadiology Case Reports
AbbreviationRadiol. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)1930-0433
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles