How to format your references using the Radiology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Radiology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Platt FM. Sphingolipid lysosomal storage disorders. Nature 2014;510:68–75.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sommer MA, Wurtz RH. Influence of the thalamus on spatial visual processing in frontal cortex. Nature 2006;444:374–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Green HW 2nd, Chen W-P, Brudzinski MR. Seismic evidence of negligible water carried below 400-km depth in subducting lithosphere. Nature 2010;467:828–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bhat MH, Molinero V, Soignard E, Solomon VC, Sastry S, Yarger JL, et al. Vitrification of a monatomic metallic liquid. Nature 2007;448:787–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meiswinkel R, Meyer J, Schnell J. Design and Construction of Nuclear Power Plants. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
Cliff JB, Kreuzer HW, Ehrhardt CJ, Wunschel DS, editors. Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Oliehoek FA, Visser A. A Decision-Theoretic Approach to Collaboration: Principal Description Methods and Efficient Heuristic Approximations. In: Babuška R, Groen FCA, editors. Interactive Collaborative Information Systems, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010, p. 87–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Radiology Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrew D. Comets or Volcanoes? Scientists Are Changing Their Minds About How the Earth’s Water Got Here. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: FAA Needs to More Aggressively Manage Its Inspection Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Finley S. How online communication and social media networking are used in alcohol use treatment. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Zverev and Konta Lose In French Open Upsets. New York Times 2017:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRadiology Case Reports
AbbreviationRadiol. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)1930-0433
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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