How to format your references using the Radiology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Radiology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weinberger S. Export-control laws worry academics. Nature 2009;461:156.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cook-Andersen H, Wilkinson MF. Molecular biology: Splicing does the two-step. Nature 2015;521:300–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Buckley SA, Clark KA, Evershed RP. Complex organic chemical balms of Pharaonic animal mummies. Nature 2004;431:294–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Egea PF, Shan S-O, Napetschnig J, Savage DF, Walter P, Stroud RM. Substrate twinning activates the signal recognition particle and its receptor. Nature 2004;427:215–21.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Forsberg K, Mansdorf SZ. Quick Selection Guide to Chemical Protective Clothing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Luján HD, Svärd S, editors. Giardia: A Model Organism. Vienna: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
De S, Bhattacharyya S, Chakraborty S, Dutta P. Self-supervised Colour Image Segmentation Using Parallel OptiMUSIG (ParaOptiMUSIG) Activation Function. In: Bhattacharyya S, Chakraborty S, Dutta P, editors. Hybrid Soft Computing for Multilevel Image and Data Segmentation, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 89–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Radiology Case Reports.

Blog post
Davis J. New Technique To Analyze Venom For Medicinal Properties. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Environmental Satellites: Focused Attention Needed to Improve Mitigation Strategies for Satellite Coverage Gaps. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grant JA. Far-field noise from a rotor in a wind tunnel. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski SF, Flegenheimer M. Christie Allies Joked of Disrupting Traffic at a Rabbi’s House. New York Times 2014:A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRadiology Case Reports
AbbreviationRadiol. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)1930-0433
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles