How to format your references using the Radiologic Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Radiologic Clinics of North America (RCL). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Foster KR. Biomedicine. Hamiltonian medicine: why the social lives of pathogens matter. Science 2005;308(5726):1269–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaasik K., Lee CC. Reciprocal regulation of haem biosynthesis and the circadian clock in mammals. Nature 2004;430(6998):467–71.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heierli J., Gumbsch P., Zaiser M. Anticrack nucleation as triggering mechanism for snow slab avalanches. Science 2008;321(5886):240–3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Brown ME., Barkume KM., Ragozzine D., et al. A collisional family of icy objects in the Kuiper belt. Nature 2007;446(7133):294–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
West BJ., Griffin LA. Biodynamics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Egenhofer M., Giudice N., Moratz R., et al. Spatial Information Theory: 10th International Conference, COSIT 2011, Belfast, ME, USA, September 12-16, 2011. Proceedings. vol. 6899. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Cui H., Liu G. How Noncoding RNAs Contribute to Macrophage Polarization. In: Greene CM, editor. MicroRNAs and Other Non-Coding RNAs in Inflammation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 59–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Radiologic Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Andrew E. 800-Pound Stingray Is One Of The Largest Freshwater Fish Ever Recorded. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Flexible Funding Continues to Play a Role in Supporting State and Local Transportation Priorities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beaven L. Epiphanies of soul: “When the bolts of the universe fly open.” A depth psychological contemplation of wonder. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. NBCUniversal Buys TV Rights to ‘Harry Potter.’ New York Times 2016:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleRadiologic Clinics of North America
AbbreviationRadiol. Clin. North Am.
ISSN (print)0033-8389
ISSN (online)1557-8275
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles