How to format your references using the Gut citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gut. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaplan F. An alien concept. Nature 2009;461:345–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hillaire-Marcel C, de Vernal A. Comment on ‘Mixed-layer deepening during Heinrich events: a multi-planktonic foraminiferal delta18O approach’. Science 2008;320:1161; author reply 1161.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kremer M, Brannen C, Glennerster R. The challenge of education and learning in the developing world. Science 2013;340:297–300.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Selbach M, Schwanhäusser B, Thierfelder N, et al. Widespread changes in protein synthesis induced by microRNAs. Nature 2008;455:58–63.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Snape S. Ancient Egyptian Tombs. Oxford, UK: : Wiley-Blackwell 2011.
An edited book
Lalanne D, Kohlas J, editors. Human Machine Interaction: Research Results of the MMI Program. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Reiter D. The Monte Carlo Method for Particle Transport Problems. In: Fehske H, Schneider R, Weiße A, eds. Computational Many-Particle Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2008. 141–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gut.

Blog post
Andrew E. Survival of the Fittest: How Brain Tumours Adapt Through Complex Ecosystems. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Problems of Management Information Systems: Why They Fail. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goodwell LY. Do athletic trainers have a positive impact on high school athletes’ knowledge of injury prevention and training habits? 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Haberman M. In Interview, Bannon Contradicts Trump on North Korea, and Lashes Out at Rivals. New York Times. 2017;:A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGut
ISSN (print)0017-5749
ISSN (online)1468-3288

Other styles