How to format your references using the Gut citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gut. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Banin A. Planetary science. The enigma of the martian soil. Science 2005;309:888–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sothmann B, Flindt C. Physics. Quantized electronic heat flow. Science 2013;342:569–70.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo J, Zhu J, Ye H. Comment on ‘Tubular graphite cones’. Science 2004;303:766; author reply 766.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kassai Y, Munne P, Hotta Y, et al. Regulation of mammalian tooth cusp patterning by ectodin. Science 2005;309:2067–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sailor W. Making RTI Work. San Francisco, CA, USA: : Jossey-Bass 2009.
An edited book
Manzullo EF, Gonzalez CE, Escalante CP, et al., editors. Oncologic Emergencies. 1st ed. 2016. New York, NY: : Springer 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Svinin M, Goncharenko I. Models of and Experiments with Reaching Tasks in Haptic Virtual Environments. In: Cooper EW, Kryssanov VV, Ogawa H, et al., eds. Haptic and Audio Interaction Design: 6th International Workshop, HAID 2011, Kusatsu, Japan, August 25-26, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2011. 32–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gut.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Killer Whales Surprise Kayakers. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Status of TSA’s Acquisition of Technology for Screening Passenger Identification and Boarding Passes. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones G. The impact of song on repeated reading: An examination of comprehension, fluency, and engagement with texts of Hispanic second graders in a Title I urban school. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Code of Honor, Not a Referee, Governs Curlers. New York Times. 2014;:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGut
ISSN (print)0017-5749
ISSN (online)1468-3288

Other styles