How to format your references using the Gut citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gut. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bates M. GE Prize-winning essay. A new approach to fluorescence microscopy. Science 2010;330:1334–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor WR, Lin K. Protein knots: A tangled problem. Nature 2003;421:25.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maharana C, Sharma KP, Sharma SK. Feedback mechanism in depolarization-induced sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the hippocampus. Sci Rep 2013;3:1103.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ebisawa K, Maeda Y, Kaneda H, et al. Origin of the hard x-ray emission from the Galactic plane. Science 2001;293:1633–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walker M. Happy-People-Pills For All. Oxford, UK: : Wiley Blackwell 2013.
An edited book
Pugliese A, Gaiti A, Boiti C, editors. Veterinary Science: Current Aspects in Biology, Animal Pathology, Clinic and Food Hygiene. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Machado F, Santos M, Almeida V, et al. Characterizing Mobility and Contact Networks in Virtual Worlds. In: Lehmann-Grube F, Sablatnig J, eds. Facets of Virtual Environments: First International Conference, FaVE 2009, Berlin, Germany, July 27-29, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2010. 44–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gut.

Blog post
Andrew E. Japan Restarts First Nuclear Power Plant Since Fukushima Disaster. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. H.R. 4326: Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1981. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hertzman R. Yemen’s migrant networks as critical factor in political opposition to the Imamate. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Puerto Rico Officials to Testify on Debt Crisis Before Senate Panel. New York Times. 2015;:B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGut
ISSN (print)0017-5749
ISSN (online)1468-3288

Other styles