How to format your references using the Gut citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gut. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sharon M. Biochemistry. Structural MS pulls its weight. Science 2013;340:1059–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bongaarts J, Over M. Public health. Global HIV/AIDS policy in transition. Science 2010;328:1359–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li Z, Marsiglio F, Carbotte JP. Vanishing of interband light absorption in a persistent spin helix state. Sci Rep 2013;3:2828.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Malliri A, van der Kammen RA, Clark K, et al. Mice deficient in the Rac activator Tiam1 are resistant to Ras-induced skin tumours. Nature 2002;417:867–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Drake PP, Fabozzi FJ. Foundations and Applications of the Time Value of Money. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2009.
An edited book
Kim T-H, Yang LT, Park JH, et al., editors. Advances in Communication and Networking: Second International Conference on Future Generation Communication and Networking, FGCN 2008, Sanya, Hainan Island, China, December 13-15, 2008. Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Coughlan JM, Shen H. The Crosswatch Traffic Intersection Analyzer: A Roadmap for the Future. In: Miesenberger K, Karshmer A, Penaz P, et al., eds. Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 13th International Conference, ICCHP 2012, Linz, Austria, July 11-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2012. 25–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gut.

Blog post
Carpineti C. This ‘Cosmic Jellyfish’ is Weird and Wonderful. IFLScience. 2017. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Amtrak’s Northeast Corridor Funding Needs. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim SA. Development of an age-appropriate, facility-specific nutrition screening and assessment tool for the elderly. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick B. Music Videos Come to Life. New York Times. 2016;:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGut
ISSN (print)0017-5749
ISSN (online)1468-3288

Other styles