How to format your references using the Journal of Fluids Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Fluids Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Durrer, R., 2006, “Astronomy. Is the Mystery of Cosmic Magnetic Fields Solved?,” Science, 311(5762), pp. 787–788.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nimmo, F., and Pappalardo, R. T., 2006, “Diapir-Induced Reorientation of Saturn’s Moon Enceladus,” Nature, 441(7093), pp. 614–616.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, X. C., Zhang, H. W., and Lu, K., 2013, “Strain-Induced Ultrahard and Ultrastable Nanolaminated Structure in Nickel,” Science, 342(6156), pp. 337–340.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bassett, S. E., Milne, G. A., Mitrovica, J. X., and Clark, P. U., 2005, “Ice Sheet and Solid Earth Influences on Far-Field Sea-Level Histories,” Science, 309(5736), pp. 925–928.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chang, C. M., 2010, Service Systems Management and Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Salvi, R. J., Popper, A. N., and Fay, R. R., eds., 2008, Hair Cell Regeneration, Repair, and Protection, Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Zapfe, J. A., Saurenman, H., and Fidell, S., 2012, “Human Response to Groundborne Noise and Vibration in Buildings Caused by Rail Transit: Summary of the TCRP D-12 Study,” Noise and Vibration Mitigation for Rail Transportation Systems: Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on RailwayNoise, Nagahama, Japan, 18–22 October 2010, T. Maeda, P.-E. Gautier, C.E. Hanson, B. Hemsworth, J.T. Nelson, B. Schulte-Werning, D. Thompson, and P. de Vos, eds., Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 25–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Fluids Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015, “Female Bed Bugs Tolerate Being Traumatically Stabbed By The Male’s Penis,” IFLScience [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009, Information Technology: Management and Oversight of Projects Totaling Billions of Dollars Need Attention, GAO-09-624T, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zelaya, G. S., 2012, “Hopelessness and Diabetes: Do Hispanic Diabetic Patients Feel Less Hopeless Eating Fruits, Vegetables and Exercising Regularly?,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, L., 2009, “2 Families, and No Room for Guilt,” New York Times, p. C33.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Fluids Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Fluids Eng.
ISSN (print)0098-2202
ISSN (online)1528-901X
ScopeMechanical Engineering

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