How to format your references using the Quantum Beam Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quantum Beam Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barnaby, W. Do Nations Go to War over Water? Nature 2009, 458, 282–283.
A journal article with 2 authors
Desai, S.A.; Miller, L.H. Malaria: Protein-Export Pathway Illuminated. Nature 2014, 511, 541–542.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nahm, H.-H.; Park, C.H.; Kim, Y.-S. Bistability of Hydrogen in ZnO: Origin of Doping Limit and Persistent Photoconductivity. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4124.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nicastro, F.; Zezas, A.; Elvis, M.; Mathur, S.; Fiore, F.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Burke, D.; Drake, J.; Casella, P. The Far-Ultraviolet Signature of the “missing” Baryons in the Local Group of Galaxies. Nature 2003, 421, 719–721.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ruckmongathan, T.N. Addressing Techniques of Liquid Crystal Displays; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118706398.
An edited book
Modelling and Identification with Rational Orthogonal Basis Functions; Heuberger, P.S.C., Hof, P.M.J.V.D., Wahlberg, B., Eds.; Springer: London, 2005; ISBN 9781852339562.
A chapter in an edited book
Knoche, G.; Kuhnhenn, K.; Vollmer, C.; Werner, K. The Need for Decarbonising Our Economy. In Factor X: Policy, Strategies and Instruments for a Sustainable Resource Use; Angrick, M., Burger, A., Lehmann, H., Eds.; Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; pp. 93–101 ISBN 9789400757059.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quantum Beam Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Massive Storm Found Within Galaxy Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office FAA Budget: Key Issues in Facilities and Equipment and Operations Accounts Need Resolution; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anthony, P.J. Determining Courses of Action for Educational Leaders to Achieve Adequate Yearly Progress. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. Looking at, and Beyond, a Lifetime of Anxiety. New York Times 2017, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleQuantum Beam Science
AbbreviationQuantum Beam Sci.
ISSN (online)2412-382X

Other styles